Crosstalk Of The Brassinosteroid Signalosome With Phytohormonal And Stress Signaling Components Maintains A Balance Between The Processes Of Growth And Stress Tolerance
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of phytohormones, which regulate various processes during plant life cycle. Intensive studies conducted with genetic, physiological and molecular approaches allowed identification of various components participating in the BR signaling—from the ligand perception, through cytoplasmic signal transduction, up to the BR-dependent gene expression, which is regulated by transcription factors and chromatin modifying enzymes. The identification of new components of the BR signaling is an ongoing process, however an emerging view of the BR signalosome indicates that this process is interconnected at various stages with other metabolic pathways. The signaling crosstalk is mediated by the BR signaling proteins, which function as components of the transmembrane BR receptor, by a cytoplasmic kinase playing a role of the major negative regulator of the BR signaling, and by the transcription factors, which regulate the BR-dependent gene expression and form a complicated regulatory system. This molecular network of interdependencies allows a balance in homeostasis of various phytohormones to be maintained. Moreover, the components of the BR signalosome interact with factors regulating plant reactions to environmental cues and stress conditions. This intricate network of interactions enables a rapid adaptation of plant metabolism to constantly changing environmental conditions.