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The Ovarian Cancer Tumor Immune Microenvironment (TIME) As Target For Therapy: A Focus On Innate Immunity Cells As Therapeutic Effectors

Denisa Baci, Annalisa Bosi, Matteo Gallazzi, Manuela Rizzi, Douglas M. Noonan, Alessandro Poggi, Antonino Bruno, Lorenzo Mortara

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Ovarian cancer (OvCA) accounts for one of the leading causes of death from gynecologic malignancy. Despite progress in therapy improvements in OvCA, most patients develop a recurrence after first-line treatments, dependent on the tumor and non-tumor complexity/heterogeneity of the neoplasm and its surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME). The TME has gained greater attention in the design of specific therapies within the new era of immunotherapy. It is now clear that the immune contexture in OvCA, here referred as tumor immune microenvironment (TIME), acts as a crucial orchestrator of OvCA progression, thus representing a necessary target for combined therapies. Currently, several advancements of antitumor immune responses in OvCA are based on the characterization of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, which have been shown to correlate with a significantly improved clinical outcome. Here, we reviewed the literature on selected TIME components of OvCA, such as macrophages, neutrophils, γδ T lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells; these cells can have a role in either supporting or limiting OvCA, depending on the TIME stimuli. We also reviewed and discussed the major (immune)-therapeutic approaches currently employed to target and/or potentiate macrophages, neutrophils, γδ T lymphocytes, and NK cells in the OvCA context.