Animal Model For Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction In Parkinson’s Disease
Although Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and subsequent motor symptoms, various non-motor symptoms often precede these other symptoms. While motor symptoms are certainly burdensome, a wide range of non-motor symptoms have emerged as the key determinant of the quality of life in PD patients. The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms differs according to the study, with ranges between 27% and 63.9%. These can be influenced by the stage of disease, the presence of lower urinary tract-related comorbidities, and parallels with other manifestations of autonomic dysfunction. Animal models can provide a platform for investigating the mechanisms of PD-related dysfunction and for the assessment of novel treatment strategies. Animal research efforts have been primarily focused on PD motor signs and symptoms. However, the etiology of lower urinary tract dysfunction in PD has yet to be definitively clarified. Several animal PD models are available, each of which has a different effect on the autonomic nervous system. In this article, we review the various lower urinary tract dysfunction animal PD models. We additionally discuss techniques for determining the appropriate model for evaluating the development of lower urinary tract dysfunction treatments.