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Carbon Dots-Mediated Fluorescent Scaffolds: Recent Trends In Image-Guided Tissue Engineering Applications

Mohan Vedhanayagam, Iruthayapandi Selestin Raja, Anara Molkenova, Timur Sh. Atabaev, Kalarical Janardhanan Sreeram, Dong-Wook Han

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Regeneration of damaged tissues or organs is one of the significant challenges in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Many researchers have fabricated various scaffolds to accelerate the tissue regeneration process. However, most of the scaffolds are limited in clinical trials due to scaffold inconsistency, non-biodegradability, and lack of non-invasive techniques to monitor tissue regeneration after implantation. Recently, carbon dots (CDs) mediated fluorescent scaffolds are widely explored for the application of image-guided tissue engineering due to their controlled architecture, light-emitting ability, higher chemical and photostability, excellent biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancement of CDs in terms of their different synthesis methods, tunable physicochemical, mechanical, and optical properties, and their application in tissue engineering. Finally, this review concludes the further research directions that can be explored to apply CDs in tissue engineering.