Pro- And Antiangiogenic Factors In Gliomas: Implications For Novel Therapeutic Possibilities
Angiogenesis, a complex, multistep process of forming new blood vessels, plays crucial role in normal development, embryogenesis, and wound healing. Malignant tumors characterized by increased proliferation also require new vasculature to provide an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients for developing tumor. Gliomas are among the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by increased new vessel formation. The processes of neoangiogenesis, necessary for glioma development, are mediated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and other proteins. In contrast to other solid tumors, some biological conditions, such as the blood–brain barrier and the unique interplay between immune microenvironment and tumor, represent significant challenges in glioma therapy. Therefore, the objective of the study was to present the role of various proangiogenic factors in glioma angiogenesis as well as the differences between normal and tumoral angiogenesis. Another goal was to present novel therapeutic options in oncology approaches. We performed a thorough search via the PubMed database. In this paper we describe various proangiogenic factors in glioma vasculature development. The presented paper also reviews various antiangiogenic factors necessary in maintaining equilibrium between pro- and antiangiogenic processes. Furthermore, we present some novel possibilities of antiangiogenic therapy in this type of tumors.