Low Muscle Mass As A Prognostic Factor For Early Postoperative Outcomes In Pediatric Patients Undergoing The Fontan Operation: A Retrospective Cohort Study
The impact of low muscle mass on pediatric cardiac patients remains unclear. We investigated the impact of low muscle mass on early postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing the Fontan operation. The electronic medical records of 74 patients (aged <18 years) who underwent the Fontan operation were retrospectively reviewed. The cross-sectional areas of the erector spinae and pectoralis muscles were measured using preoperative chest computed tomography (CT), normalized to the body surface area, and combined to obtain the total skeletal muscle index (TSMI). Low muscle mass was defined as a TSMI value lower than the median TSMI for the second quintile. The incidence of major postoperative complications was higher in patients with low muscle mass than in those with high muscle mass (48% (15/31) versus 14% (6/43); P = 0.003). Multivariable analyses revealed that a higher TSMI was associated with a lower likelihood of an increased duration of intensive care unit (>5 days) and hospital stay (>14 days) (odds ratio (OR) 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77–0.96; P = 0.006 and OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.85–0.99; P = 0.035 per 1 cm2/m2 increase in TSMI) and incidence of major postoperative complications (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.82–0.99; P = 0.039 per 1 cm2/m2 increase in TSMI). Preoperative low muscle mass was associated with poor early postoperative outcomes in pediatric patients undergoing the Fontan operation.