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Should Lung-Sparing Surgery Be The Standard Procedure For Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma?

Yoshinobu Ichiki, Hidenori Goto, Takashi Fukuyama, Kozo Nakanishi

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Background: Surgical procedures for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) include extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), extended pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) and P/D. EPP has been applied to MPM for a long time, but the postoperative status is extremely poor due to the loss of one whole lung. We compared the mortality, morbidity and median survival time (MST) of lung-sparing surgery (extended P/D or P/D) and lung-sacrificing surgery (EPP) for MPM by performing a systematic review. Methods: We extracted the number of events and patients from the literature identified in electronic databases. Ultimately, 15 reports were selected, and 2674 MPM patients, including 1434 patients undergoing EPP and 1240 patients undergoing extended P/D or P/D, were analyzed. Results: Our systematic review showed that lung-sparing surgery was significantly superior to lung-sacrificing surgery in both the surgical-related mortality (extended P/D vs. EPP: 3.19% vs. 7.65%, p < 0.01; P/D vs. EPP: 1.85% vs. 7.34%, p < 0.01) and morbidity (extended P/D vs. EPP: 35.7% vs. 60.0%, p < 0.01; P/D vs. EPP: 9.52% vs. 20.89%, p < 0.01). Lung-sparing surgery was not inferior to EPP in terms of MST. Conclusion: Although no prospective randomized controlled trial has been conducted, it may be time to change the standard surgical method for MPM from lung-sacrificing surgery to lung-sparing surgery.