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Patient-Specific Bone Multiscale Modelling, Fracture Simulation And Risk Analysis—A Survey

Amadeus C. S. Alcântara, Israel Assis, Daniel Prada, Konrad Mehle, Stefan Schwan, Lúcia Costa-Paiva, Munir S. Skaf, Luiz C. Wrobel, Paulo Sollero

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This paper provides a starting point for researchers and practitioners from biology, medicine, physics and engineering who can benefit from an up-to-date literature survey on patient-specific bone fracture modelling, simulation and risk analysis. This survey hints at a framework for devising realistic patient-specific bone fracture simulations. This paper has 18 sections: Section 1 presents the main interested parties; Section 2 explains the organzation of the text; Section 3 motivates further work on patient-specific bone fracture simulation; Section 4 motivates this survey; Section 5 concerns the collection of bibliographical references; Section 6 motivates the physico-mathematical approach to bone fracture; Section 7 presents the modelling of bone as a continuum; Section 8 categorizes the surveyed literature into a continuum mechanics framework; Section 9 concerns the computational modelling of bone geometry; Section 10 concerns the estimation of bone mechanical properties; Section 11 concerns the selection of boundary conditions representative of bone trauma; Section 12 concerns bone fracture simulation; Section 13 presents the multiscale structure of bone; Section 14 concerns the multiscale mathematical modelling of bone; Section 15 concerns the experimental validation of bone fracture simulations; Section 16 concerns bone fracture risk assessment. Lastly, glossaries for symbols, acronyms, and physico-mathematical terms are provided.