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Graphene On SiC Substrate As Biosensor: Theoretical Background, Preparation, And Characterization

Alexander A. Lebedev, Sergey Yu Davydov, Ilya A. Eliseyev, Alexander D. Roenkov, Oleg Avdeev, Sergey P. Lebedev, Yurii Makarov, Mikhail Puzyk, Sergey Klotchenko, Alexander S. Usikov

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This work is devoted to the development and optimization of the parameters of graphene-based sensors. The graphene films used in the present study were grown on semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrates by thermal decomposition of SiC at the temperature of ~1700 °C. The results of measurements by Auger and Raman spectroscopies confirmed the presence of single-layer graphene on the silicon carbide surface. Model approach to the theory of adsorption on epitaxial graphene is presented. It is demonstrated that the Green-function method in conjunction with the simple substrate models permit one to obtain analytical results for the charge transfer between adsorbed molecules and substrate. The sensor structure was formed on the graphene film by laser. Initially, a simpler gas sensor was made. The sensors developed in this study demonstrated sensitivity to the NO2 concentration at the level of 1–0.01 ppb. The results obtained in the course of development and the results of testing of the graphene-based sensor for detection of protein molecules are also presented. The biosensor was fabricated by the technology previously developed for the gas sensor. The working capacity of the biosensor was tested with an immunochemical system constituted by fluorescein and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) binding this dye.