24(S)-Saringosterol Prevents Cognitive Decline In A Mouse Model For Alzheimer’s Disease
We recently found that dietary supplementation with the seaweed Sargassum fusiforme, containing the preferential LXRβ-agonist 24(S)-saringosterol, prevented memory decline and reduced amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model without inducing hepatic steatosis. Here, we examined the effects of 24(S)-saringosterol as a food additive on cognition and neuropathology in AD mice. Six-month-old male APPswePS1ΔE9 mice and wildtype C57BL/6J littermates received 24(S)-saringosterol (0.5 mg/25 g body weight/day) (APPswePS1ΔE9 n = 20; C57BL/6J n = 19) or vehicle (APPswePS1ΔE9 n = 17; C57BL/6J n = 19) for 10 weeks. Cognition was assessed using object recognition and object location tasks. Sterols were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, Aβ and inflammatory markers by immunohistochemistry, and gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR. Hepatic lipids were quantified after Oil-Red-O staining. Administration of 24(S)-saringosterol prevented cognitive decline in APPswePS1ΔE9 mice without affecting the Aβ plaque load. Moreover, 24(S)-saringosterol prevented the increase in the inflammatory marker Iba1 in the cortex of APPswePS1ΔE9 mice (p < 0.001). Furthermore, 24(S)-saringosterol did not affect the expression of lipid metabolism-related LXR-response genes in the hippocampus nor the hepatic neutral lipid content. Thus, administration of 24(S)-saringosterol prevented cognitive decline in APPswePS1ΔE9 mice independent of effects on Aβ load and without adverse effects on liver fat content. The anti-inflammatory effects of 24(S)-saringosterol may contribute to the prevention of cognitive decline.