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Nanoemulsions Of Essential Oils: New Tool For Control Of Vector-Borne Diseases And In Vitro Effects On Some Parasitic Agents

Javier Echeverría, Ricardo Albuquerque

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The control of infectious/parasitic diseases is a continuing challenge for global health, which in turn requires new methods of action and the development of innovative agents to be used in its prevention and/or treatment. In this context, the control of vectors and intermediate hosts of etiological agents is an efficient method in the prevention of human and veterinary diseases. In later stages, it is necessary to have bioactive compounds that act efficiently on the agents that produce the disease. However, several synthetic agents have strong residual effects in humans and other animals and cause environmental toxicity, affecting fauna, flora and unbalancing the local ecosystem. Many studies have reported the dual activity of the essential oils (EOs): (i) control of vectors that are important in the cycle of disease transmission, and (ii) relevant activity against pathogens. In general, EOs have an easier degradation and cause less extension of environmental contamination. However, problems related to solubility and stability lead to the development of efficient vehicles for formulations containing EOs, such as nanoemulsions. Therefore, this systematic review describes several studies performed with nanoemulsions as carriers of EOs that have larvicidal, insecticidal, repellent, acaricidal and antiparasitic activities, and thus can be considered as alternatives in the vector control of infectious and parasitic diseases, as well as in the combat against etiological agents of parasitic origin.