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Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization Of Phenolic Compounds From Citrus Latifolia Waste For Chitosan Bioactive Nanoparticles Development

Nelly Medina-Torres, Hugo Espinosa-Andrews, Stéphane Trombotto, Teresa Ayora-Talavera, Jesús Patrón-Vázquez, Tania González-Flores, Ángeles Sánchez-Contreras, Juan C. Cuevas-Bernardino, Neith Pacheco

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Bioactive Phenols-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (PL-CNps) were developed by ionic gelation from Persian lemon (Citrus latifolia) waste (PLW) and chitosan nanoparticles. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimal Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) conditions for the total phenolic compounds (TPC) recovery from PLW (58.13 mg GAE/g dw), evaluating the ethanol concentration, extraction time, amplitude, and solid/liquid ratio. Eight compounds expressed as mg/g dry weight (dw) were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled photo diode array (UPLC-PDA) analysis: eriocitrin (20.71 ± 0.09), diosmin (18.59 ± 0.13), hesperidin (7.30 ± 0.04), sinapic acid (3.67 ± 0.04), catechin (2.92 ± 0.05), coumaric acid (2.86 ± 0.01), neohesperidin (1.63 ± 0.00), and naringenin (0.44 ± 0.00). The PL-CNps presented size of 232.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.182, Z potential of −3.8 mV, and encapsulation efficiency of 81.16%. The results indicated that a synergic effect between phenolic compounds from PLW and chitosan nanoparticles was observed in antioxidant and antibacterial activity, according to Limpel’s equation. Such results indicate that PLW in such bioprocesses shows excellent potential as substrates for the production of value-added compounds with a special application for the food industry.