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Synthesis And Characterization Of Citrate-Stabilized Gold-Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles For Biomedical Applications

René Stein, B. Friedrich, Marina Mühlberger, Nadine Cebulla, Eveline Schreiber, R. Tietze, I. Cicha, C. Alexiou, S. Dutz, A. Boccaccini, H. Unterweger
Published 2020 · Chemistry, Medicine

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Surface-functionalized gold-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Au-SPIONs) may be a useful tool in various biomedical applications. To obtain Au-SPIONs, gold salt was precipitated onto citrate-stabilized SPIONs (Cit-SPIONs) using a simple, aqueous one-pot technique inspired by the Turkevich method of gold nanoparticle synthesis. By the further stabilization of the Au-SPION surface with additional citrate (Cit-Au-SPIONs), controllable and reproducible Z-averages enhanced long-term dispersion stability and moderate dispersion pH values were achieved. The citrate concentration of the reaction solution and the gold/iron ratio was found to have a major influence on the particle characteristics. While the gold-coating reduced the saturation magnetization to 40.7% in comparison to pure Cit-SPIONs, the superparamagnetic behavior of Cit-Au-SPIONs was maintained. The formation of nanosized gold on the SPION surface was confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Cit-Au-SPION concentrations of up to 100 µg Fe/mL for 48 h had no cytotoxic effect on Jurkat cells. At a particle concentration of 100 µg Fe/mL, Jurkat cells were found to take up Cit-Au-SPIONs after 24 h of incubation. A significantly higher attachment of thiol-containing L-cysteine to the particle surface was observed for Cit-Au-SPIONs (53%) in comparison to pure Cit-SPIONs (7%).
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