Cyclometalated Osmium Compounds And Beyond: Synthesis, Properties, Applications
The synthesis of cyclometalated osmium complexes is usually more complicated than of other transition metals such as Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh, where cyclometalation reactions readily occur via direct activation of C–H bonds. It differs also from their ruthenium analogs. Cyclometalation for osmium usually occurs under more severe conditions, in polar solvents, using specific precursors, stronger acids, or bases. Such requirements expand reaction mechanisms to electrophilic activation, transmetalation, and oxidative addition, often involving C–H bond activations. Osmacycles exhibit specific applications in homogeneous catalysis, photophysics, bioelectrocatalysis and are studied as anticancer agents. This review describes major synthetic pathways to osmacycles and related compounds and discusses their practical applications.