Valorization Of Winemaking By-Products As A Novel Source Of Antibacterial Properties: New Strategies To Fight Antibiotic Resistance
The emergence of antibiotic-resistance in bacteria has limited the ability to treat bacterial infections, besides increasing their morbidity and mortality at the global scale. The need for alternative solutions to deal with this problem is urgent and has brought about a renewed interest in natural products as sources of potential antimicrobials. The wine industry is responsible for the production of vast amounts of waste and by-products, with associated environmental problems. These residues are rich in bioactive secondary metabolites, especially phenolic compounds. Some phenolics are bacteriostatic/bactericidal against several pathogenic bacteria and may have a synergistic action towards antibiotics, mitigating or reverting bacterial resistance to these drugs. Complex phenolic mixtures, such as those present in winemaking residues (pomace, skins, stalks, leaves, and especially seeds), are even more effective as antimicrobials and could be used in combined therapy, thereby contributing to management of the antibiotic resistance crisis. This review focuses on the potentialities of winemaking by-products, their extracts, and constituents as chemotherapeutic antibacterial agents.