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Graphene For The Building Of Electroanalytical Enzyme-Based Biosensors. Application To The Inhibitory Detection Of Emerging Pollutants

Marta Bonet-San-Emeterio, Noelia Felipe Montiel, Manel del Valle

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Graphene and its derivates offer a wide range of possibilities in the electroanalysis field, mainly owing to their biocompatibility, low-cost, and easy tuning. This work reports the development of an enzymatic biosensor using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as a key nanomaterial for the detection of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). RGO was obtained from the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO), an intermediate previously synthesized in the laboratory by a wet chemistry top-down approach. The extensive characterization of this material was carried out to evaluate its proper inclusion in the biosensor arrangement. The results demonstrated the presence of GO or RGO and their correct integration on the sensor surface. The detection of CECs was carried out by modifying the graphene platform with a laccase enzyme, turning the sensor into a more selective and sensitive device. Laccase was linked covalently to RGO using the remaining carboxylic groups of the reduction step and the carbodiimide reaction. After the calibration and characterization of the biosensor versus catechol, a standard laccase substrate, EDTA and benzoic acid were detected satisfactorily as inhibiting agents of the enzyme catalysis obtaining inhibition constants for EDTA and benzoic acid of 25 and 17 mmol·L−1, respectively, and a maximum inhibition percentage of the 25% for the EDTA and 60% for the benzoic acid.