Biomarkers-based Biosensing And Bioimaging With Graphene For Cancer Diagnosis
At the onset of cancer, specific biomarkers get elevated or modified in body fluids or tissues. Early diagnosis of these biomarkers can greatly improve the survival rate or facilitate effective treatment with different modalities. Potential nanomaterial-based biosensing and bioimaging are the main techniques in nanodiagnostics because of their ultra-high selectivity and sensitivity. Emerging graphene, including two dimensional (2D) graphene films, three dimensional (3D) graphene architectures and graphene hybrids (GHs) nanostructures, are attracting increasing interests in the field of biosensing and bioimaging. Due to their remarkable optical, electronic, and thermal properties; chemical and mechanical stability; large surface area; and good biocompatibility, graphene-based nanomaterials are applicable alternatives as versatile platforms to detect biomarkers at the early stage of cancer. Moreover, currently, extensive applications of graphene-based biosensing and bioimaging has resulted in promising prospects in cancer diagnosis. We also hope this review will provide critical insights to inspire more exciting researches to address the current remaining problems in this field.