NcRNAs In Type-2 Immunity
Immunological diseases, including asthma, autoimmunity and immunodeficiencies, affect a growing percentage of the population with significant unmet medical needs. As we slowly untangle and better appreciate these complex genetic and environment-influenced diseases, new therapeutically targetable pathways are emerging. Non-coding RNA species, which regulate epigenetic, transcriptional and translational responses are critical regulators of immune cell development, differentiation and effector function, and may represent one such new class of therapeutic targets. In this review we focus on type-2 immune responses, orchestrated by TH2 cell-derived cytokines, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, which stimulate a variety of immune and tissue responses- commonly referred to as type-2 immunity. Evolved to protect us from parasitic helminths, type-2 immune responses are observed in individuals with allergic diseases, including Asthma, atopic dermatitis and food allergy. A growing number of studies have identified the involvement of various RNA species, including microRNAs (miRNA) and long non-coding (lncRNA), in type-2 immune responses and in both clinical and pre-clinical disease settings. We highlight these recent findings, identify gaps in our understanding and provide a perspective on how our current understanding can be harnessed for novel treat opportunities to treat type-2 immune-mediated diseases.