A Dairy Product To Reconstitute Enriched With Bioactive Nutrients Stops Bone Loss In High-Risk Menopausal Women Without Pharmacological Treatment
Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease characterized by the loss of bone mass and deterioration of the internal structure of the bone, increasing the risk of fractures, and is becoming an economic and social problem. The main treatment is pharmacological, however, the population demands other therapies, such as foods with nutrients beneficial to bone health. Seventy-eight healthy menopausal women at risk of osteoporosis or untreated osteopenia were recruited for a randomized, parallel, double-blind clinical trial with two intervention groups: one group consumed a serving a day of the experimental enriched product (experimental group (EG)) and the other group (control group (CG)) consumed the same product without enrichment. The main objective was to compare the effect of consuming a dairy preparation to reconstitute, similar to yogurt when prepared, enriched in calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, vitamin C, zinc, magnesium, L-leucine and probiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum 3547) on bone metabolism markers for 24 weeks. The EG showed a significantly increased bone mass compared to the CG (0.01 ± 0.03 vs. −0.01 ± 0.03 kg; p < 0.05). In addition, the EG maintained their bone mineral density (BMD) compared to the CG, whose BMD significantly decreased at the end of the study. For biochemical markers, the EG significantly increased the serum levels of the N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP) bone formation marker (13.19 ± 25.17 vs. −4.21 ± 15.62 ng/mL; p < 0.05), and decreased the carbo-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx) bone resorption marker compared to the CG (−0.05 ± 0.19 vs. 0.04 ± 0.14 ng/mL; p < 0.05). On the other hand, the EG exhibited a significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to the start of the study. Finally, the EG significantly increased their dietary calcium and vitamin D intake compared to the CG. In conclusion, the regular consumption of a dairy product to reconstitute enriched with bioactive nutrients improves bone health markers in menopausal women at risk of osteoporosis without pharmacological treatment.