Green Tomato Extract Prevents Bone Loss In Ovariectomized Rats, A Model Of Osteoporosis
Although drug therapies are available for postmenopausal osteoporosis, these drugs are not free of side effects and long-term adherence to them are low. A safe and effective nutritional approach to counter postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important research goal. We fed ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague–Dawley rats a diet supplemented with 1% or 2% green tomato extract (GTE). After 12 weeks, micro-computed tomography scans revealed that GTE supplementation effectively prevented distal femur bone loss. This prevention was due to improved bone formation and suppressed bone resorption as observed by the regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activities. GTE supplementation also improved bone formation through Bmp2-Smad 1/5/8-Runx2 signaling, while bone resorption was regulated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANKL)/osteoprogeterin (OPG) pathway. These results suggest that GTE supplementation prevents severe postmenopausal bone loss by maintaining the regulation of bone homeostasis in OVX rats. GTE as a diet supplement might be a potential novel alternative for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.