Using Supercritical Fluid Technology As A Green Alternative During The Preparation Of Drug Delivery Systems
Micro- and nano-carrier formulations have been developed as drug delivery systems for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that suffer from poor physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties. Encapsulating the APIs in such systems can help improve their stability by protecting them from harsh conditions such as light, oxygen, temperature, pH, enzymes, and others. Consequently, the API’s dissolution rate and bioavailability are tremendously improved. Conventional techniques used in the production of these drug carrier formulations have several drawbacks, including thermal and chemical stability of the APIs, excessive use of organic solvents, high residual solvent levels, difficult particle size control and distributions, drug loading-related challenges, and time and energy consumption. This review illustrates how supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies can be superior in controlling the morphology of API particles and in the production of drug carriers due to SCF’s non-toxic, inert, economical, and environmentally friendly properties. The SCF’s advantages, benefits, and various preparation methods are discussed. Drug carrier formulations discussed in this review include microparticles, nanoparticles, polymeric membranes, aerogels, microporous foams, solid lipid nanoparticles, and liposomes.