Current Status Of Supersaturable Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems
Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs) are a vital strategy to enhance the bioavailability (BA) of formulations of poorly water-soluble compounds. However, these formulations have certain limitations, including in vivo drug precipitation, poor in vitro in vivo correlation due to a lack of predictive in vitro tests, issues in handling of liquid formulation, and physico-chemical instability of drug and/or vehicle components. To overcome these limitations, which restrict the potential usage of such systems, the supersaturable SEDDSs (su-SEDDSs) have gained attention based on the fact that the inclusion of precipitation inhibitors (PIs) within SEDDSs helps maintain drug supersaturation after dispersion and digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. This improves the BA of drugs and reduces the variability of exposure. In addition, the formulation of solid su-SEDDSs has helped to overcome disadvantages of liquid or capsule dosage form. This review article discusses, in detail, the current status of su-SEDDSs that overcome the limitations of conventional SEDDSs. It discusses the definition and range of su-SEDDSs, the principle mechanisms underlying precipitation inhibition and enhanced in vivo absorption, drug application cases, biorelevance in vitro digestion models, and the development of liquid su-SEDDSs to solid dosage forms. This review also describes the effects of various physiological factors and the potential interactions between PIs and lipid, lipase or lipid digested products on the in vivo performance of su-SEDDSs. In particular, several considerations relating to the properties of PIs are discussed from various perspectives.