Mathematical Modelling, Simulation And Optimisation Of Microneedles For Transdermal Drug Delivery: Trends And Progress
In the last two decades, microneedles (MNs) have received significant interest due to their potential for painless transdermal drug delivery (TDD) and minimal skin damage. MNs have found applications in a range of research and development areas in drug delivery. They have been prepared using a variety of materials and fabrication techniques resulting in MN arrays with different dimensions, shapes, and geometries for delivery of a variety of drug molecules. These parameters play crucial roles in determining the drug release profiles from the MNs. Developing mathematical modelling, simulation, and optimisation techniques is vital to achieving the desired MN performances. These will then be helpful for pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries as well as professionals working in the field of regulatory affairs focusing on MN based TDD systems. This is because modelling has a great potential to reduce the financial and time cost of both the MNs’ studies and manufacturing. For example, a number of robust mathematical models for predicting the performance of the MNs in vivo have emerged recently which incorporate the roles of the structural and mechanical properties of the skin. In addressing these points, this review paper aims to highlight the current status of the MN modelling research, in particular, the modelling, simulation and optimisation of the systems for drug delivery. The theoretical basis for the simulation of MN enhanced diffusion is discussed within this paper. Thus, this review paper provides a better understanding of the modelling of the MN mediated drug delivery process.