Identification Of Angiogenic Cargo In Extracellular Vesicles Secreted From Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells And Induction Of Angiogenesis In Vitro And In Vivo
Angiogenesis is defined as the generation of new blood vessels or the sprouting of endothelial cells from a pre-existing vascular network. Angiogenesis occurs during the growth and development of an organism, the response of organs or tissues to injury, and during cancer development and progression. The majority of studies on stem-cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have used cell lines, and have primarily focused on well-known solitary proteins. Here, we isolated stem cells from human adipose tissue (ADSCs), and we isolated EVs from them (ADSC-EVs). The ADSC-EVs were characterised and 20 angiogenic proteins were analysed using an angiogenic antibody array. Furthermore, we analysed the ability of ADSC-EVs to induce angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. ADSC-EVs were positive for CD81 and negative for GM130, calnexin, and cytochrome-C. ADSC-EVs showed typical EV spherical morphology and were ~200 nm in size. ADSC-EVs were found to contain angiogenic proteins as cargo, among which interleukin 8 (IL-8) was the most abundant, followed by chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D). ADSC-EVs treatment increased the proliferation, migration, total vessel length, total number of junctions, and junction density of endothelial cells in vitro. The results of an in vivo Matrigel plug assay revealed that ADSC-EVs induced more blood vessels in the Matrigel compared with the control. These results demonstrate that ADSC-EVs contain angiogenic proteins as cargo and promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, ADSC-EVs have potential for therapeutic use in ischaemia.