S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase—The Master Regulator Of Protein S-Nitrosation In Plant NO Signaling
S-nitrosation has been recognized as an important mechanism of protein posttranslational regulations, based on the attachment of a nitroso group to cysteine thiols. Reversible S-nitrosation, similarly to other redox-base modifications of protein thiols, has a profound effect on protein structure and activity and is considered as a convergence of signaling pathways of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. In plant, S-nitrosation is involved in a wide array of cellular processes during normal development and stress responses. This review summarizes current knowledge on S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), a key enzyme which regulates intracellular levels of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and indirectly also of protein S-nitrosothiols. GSNOR functions are mediated by its enzymatic activity, which catalyzes irreversible GSNO conversion to oxidized glutathione within the cellular catabolism of nitric oxide. GSNOR is involved in the maintenance of balanced levels of reactive nitrogen species and in the control of cellular redox state. Multiple functions of GSNOR in plant development via NO-dependent and -independent signaling mechanisms and in plant defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress conditions have been uncovered. Extensive studies of plants with down- and upregulated GSNOR, together with application of transcriptomics and proteomics approaches, seem promising for new insights into plant S-nitrosothiol metabolism and its regulation.