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Biotechnological Potential Of LSD1, EDS1, And PAD4 In The Improvement Of Crops And Industrial Plants

Maciej Jerzy Bernacki, Weronika Czarnocka, Magdalena Szechyńska-Hebda, Ron Mittler, Stanisław Karpiński

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Lesion Simulating Disease 1 (LSD1), Enhanced Disease Susceptibility (EDS1) and Phytoalexin Deficient 4 (PAD4) were discovered a quarter century ago as regulators of programmed cell death and biotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Recent studies have demonstrated that these proteins are also required for acclimation responses to various abiotic stresses, such as high light, UV radiation, drought and cold, and that their function is mediated through secondary messengers, such as salicylic acid (SA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), ethylene (ET) and other signaling molecules. Furthermore, LSD1, EDS1 and PAD4 were recently shown to be involved in the modification of cell walls, and the regulation of seed yield, biomass production and water use efficiency. The function of these proteins was not only demonstrated in model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana or Nicotiana benthamiana, but also in the woody plant Populus tremula x tremuloides. In addition, orthologs of LSD1, EDS1, and PAD4 were found in other plant species, including different crop species. In this review, we focus on specific LSD1, EDS1 and PAD4 features that make them potentially important for agricultural and industrial use.