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Integration Of Abscisic Acid Signaling With Other Signaling Pathways In Plant Stress Responses And Development

Manu Kumar, Mahipal Singh Kesawat, Asjad Ali, Sang-Choon Lee, Sarvajeet Singh Gill, Hyun Uk Kim

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Plants are immobile and, to overcome harsh environmental conditions such as drought, salt, and cold, they have evolved complex signaling pathways. Abscisic acid (ABA), an isoprenoid phytohormone, is a critical signaling mediator that regulates diverse biological processes in various organisms. Significant progress has been made in the determination and characterization of key ABA-mediated molecular factors involved in different stress responses, including stomatal closure and developmental processes, such as seed germination and bud dormancy. Since ABA signaling is a complex signaling network that integrates with other signaling pathways, the dissection of its intricate regulatory network is necessary to understand the function of essential regulatory genes involved in ABA signaling. In the present review, we focus on two aspects of ABA signaling. First, we examine the perception of the stress signal (abiotic and biotic) and the response network of ABA signaling components that transduce the signal to the downstream pathway to respond to stress tolerance, regulation of stomata, and ABA signaling component ubiquitination. Second, ABA signaling in plant development processes, such as lateral root growth regulation, seed germination, and flowering time regulation is investigated. Examining such diverse signal integration dynamics could enhance our understanding of the underlying genetic, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of ABA signaling networks in plants.