Plant Growth Inhibitory Activities And Volatile Active Compounds Of 53 Spices And Herbs
The inhibitory activities of the leachates and volatiles from 53 plant species (spices and herbs) were evaluated against lettuce (Lactuca sativa “Great Lakes 366”) seedling growth using the sandwich and dish pack methods, respectively. With the sandwich method, parsley (Petroselinum sativum) showed the strongest inhibitory effect on lettuce radicle growth (77%), followed by tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) (72%). However, caraway (Carum carvi), dill (Anethum graveolens) (seed), laurel (Laurus nobilis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and sage (Salvia officinalis) were the most inhibitory species (100% inhibition of lettuce radicle and hypocotyl growth inhibition at all distance wells) in the dish pack method. Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) also showed strong inhibitory activity (100% for radicle and hypocotyl growth inhibition at all 41 and 58 mm distance wells). The headspace sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis identified the main inhibitory active compounds as carvone in caraway and dill (seeds), 1,8-cineole in laurel and cardamom, and borneol in thyme. Both camphor and 1,8-cineole were detected in rosemary and sage, and the total activity evaluation showed that camphor was the major inhibitory compound in rosemary, although both compounds played equal roles in sage.