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Synthesis, Characterisation And Biological Evaluation Of Ampicillin–Chitosan–Polyanion Nanoparticles Produced By Ionic Gelation And Polyelectrolyte Complexation Assisted By High-Intensity Sonication

Yhors Ciro, J. Rojas, José Oñate-Garzón, Constain H Salamanca
Published 2019 · Chemistry, Medicine

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Recently, one of the promising strategies to fight sensitive and resistant bacteria, and decrease the morbidity and mortality rates due to non-nosocomial infections, is to use antibiotic-loaded nanoparticles. In this study, ampicillin-loaded chitosan–polyanion nanoparticles were produced through the techniques of ionic gelation and polyelectrolyte complexation assisted by high-intensity sonication, using several crosslinking agents, including phytic acid (non-polymeric polyanion), sodium and potassium salts of poly(maleic acid-alt-ethylene) and poly(maleic acid-alt-octadecene) (polymeric polyanions). These nanoparticles were analysed and characterised in terms of particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency. The stability of these nanosystems was carried out at temperatures of 4 and 40 °C, and the antimicrobial effect was determined by the broth microdilution method using sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The results reveal that most of the nanosystems have sizes <220 nm, positive zeta potential values and a monodisperse population, except for the nanoparticles crosslinked with PAM-18 polyanions. The nanometric systems exhibited adequate stability preventing aggregation and revealed a two-fold increase in antimicrobial activity when compared with free ampicillin. This study demonstrates the potential application of synthesised nanoparticles in the field of medicine, especially for treating infections caused by pathogenic S. aureus strains.
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