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Nanotechnology For Omics-Based Ocular Drug Delivery

Anjali Hirani, Aditya Grover, Yong Woo Lee, Yashwant Pathak, Vijaykumar Sutariya

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Millions of people suffer from ocular diseases that impair vision and can lead to blindness. Advances in genomics and proteomics have revealed a number of different molecular markers specific for different ocular diseases, thereby optimizing the processes of drug development and discovery. Nanotechnology can increase the throughput of data obtained in omics-based studies and allows for more sensitive diagnostic techniques as more efficient drug delivery systems. Biocompatible and biodegradable nanomaterials developed through omics-based research are able to target reported molecular markers for different ocular diseases and offer novel alternatives to conventional drug therapy. In this chapter, the authors review the pathophysiology, current genomic and proteomic information, and current nanomaterial-based therapies of four ocular diseases: glaucoma, uveal melanoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. Omics-based research can be used to elucidate specific genes and proteins and develop novel nanomedicine formulations to prevent, halt, or cure ocular diseases at the transcriptional or translational level.