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Promising Biomarkers In Renal Cell Carcinoma

Jada Kapoor, Francesco Claps, M. Carmen Mir, Joseph Ischia

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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence has been increasing in recent years, and it now represents the sixth most common cancer diagnosis in men and the tenth in women. Although this is partly due to in-creased detection of incidental small renal masses on unrelated imaging, advanced RCC continues to be diagnosed in a significant portion of patients, with more than 15% presenting with distant metasta-ses. Biomarkers can be a cost-effective tool to identify high-risk patients and institute appropriate indi-vidualised therapies. While the literature in this field is nascent, this paper focuses on several bi-omarkers that have been extensively investigated in the diagnosis and prognosis of RCC, as well as in predicting its response to treatments, particularly the newer immuno-oncology drugs.