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Effects Of Meat And Processed Meat Consumption On The Lipid Profile In The Population With Cardiovascular Diseases

Jana Kopčeková, Jana Mrázová, Martina Gažarová, Marta Habánová

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Meat represents an important source of high-quality dietary protein for a large proportion of the global population. Also, red meat, in particular, significantly contributes to the intake of a wide range of micronutrients, including iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12. Excessive consumption of meat and meat products is often associated with overconsumption of energy and fat, resulting in excess weight, obesity, and an increased risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between meat and processed meat consumption frequencies and lipid profile in a group of 800 randomly selected patients hospitalized in the Cardiocentre Nitra. Patients were 20 – 101 years, (men, the average age was 61.13 ±10.47 years). The data necessary for the detection of dietary habits were obtained by a questionnaire method. Statistical comparisons between groups were made utilizing a one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Our results show, that most respondents consume meat 1 – 2 times per week, while we did not notice a significant effect (p >0.05) of the type of meat on the lipid profile. The highest T-C, LDL-C, and TG values were seen in men who consume pork 3 – 4 times per week. Statistically significant was only the effect of pork meat on total cholesterol and triglycerides (p <0.05). In the consumption of beef and poultry, there was a non-significant effect on biochemical parameters of blood (p >0.05). We recorded a significant effect (p ˂0.05) of the consumption of frankfurters between consumption 1 – 2 times per week and 3 – 4 times per week. Up to 40.2% of respondents consume salami 3 – 4 times per week, and we recorded a significant effect on LDL levels between consumption 1 – 2 times per week and sometimes (p ˂0.05). Respondents who consume sausage, headcheese, and others products 1 – 2 times a week have non-significant higher T-C, LDL, TG, and lower HDL compared to less frequent consumption. High consumption of meat, mainly pork and processed meat seems to be associated with higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.