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Exogenous Endophthalmitis In Diabetic Patients: A Systemic Review

Georges M. El-Mollayess, Joanna S. Saadeh, Haytham I. Salti

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Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease that increases the risk of infections. Exogenous endophthalmitis is an inflammatory disease to which diabetic patients are more predisposed to than nondiabetic patients undergoing any intraocular intervention. This might be because of the change in the immune and inflammatory factors that intervene in wound healing and in the bacterial flora of the ocular adnexa. We conducted a literature review to assess the risk of exogenous endophthalmitis in diabetic patients undergoing cataract extraction, pars plana vitrectomy, and intravitreal injections and to check whether its treatment differ from in non-diabetics. We found that diabetic patients are more predisposed to virulent organisms and that the incidence of ophthalmic symptoms was not substantially different in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients. Regarding treatment, all patients with light perception should receive pars plana vitrectomy, while those with hand motion and better vision should be given an intravitreal antibiotics injection. Some authors recommend vitrectomy to diabetic patients with even counting figure vision.