Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Artificial Groundwater Recharge In Forests - Soil Fauna And Microbiology

K. Schütz
Published 2008 · Environmental Science

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
At present, approximately half of the drinking water for the city of Basel (Switzerland) is obtained by an artificial groundwater recharge system in a former floodplain area called “Lange Erlen”. Generally, the use of groundwater for drinking water production may lower groundwater tables. Artificial groundwater recharge is a practice of directing and simultaneously purifying water into aquifers, thereby raising the groundwater table and guaranteeing sufficient drinking water sources. Water purification through artificial groundwater recharge is widespread. However, it more commonly involves areas without vegetation, i.e. slow sand filters, dunes or channels and is combined with long flooding periods. In contrast, at the “Lange Erlen”, forested areas are periodically flooded (max. 10 days) with water from the river Rhine. This routine is interrupted by longer regeneration periods. To date, water infiltration and purification processes have remained constant and satisfactory since the system has been established almost 100 years ago. However, detailed knowledge on the belowground processes that have been sustaining the water purification capacity of “Lange Erlen” is scarce. Intensive flooding may detrimentally affect earthworm populations and result in clogging of the topsoil, which is a common problem in groundwater recharge systems. Earthworms are known to influence water infiltration and aeration of soils, but most of the existing knowledge relates to grasslands and little is known about the role of earthworms for water infiltration in forests. To better understand the “Lange Erlen” system in the shallow soil layer, earthworm populations, microbial parameters (substrate induced respiration, SIR) and water infiltration rates were studied at the recharge areas. The findings suggest that earthworms are an important factor of the long-term sustainability of this system (for the past ~100 years). The total earthworm numbers and biomass in watered sites exceeded those of non-watered sites (+51% and +71%, respectively). Total earthworm numbers, numbers of endogeic (mineral forms) and epigeic (litter dwellers) earthworms, and numbers of two species (Lumbricus rubellus and Allolobophora chlorotica) significantly and positively correlated with water infiltration rates. Microbial biomass and activity was significantly enhanced in the top soil layer of the watered sites. The results imply that the flooding regime at the “Lange Erlen” favors earthworm populations which in turn prevent soil clogging, aerate the top soil layer, and stimulate microbial growth. Groundwater quality is directly influenced by subsurface microbial, chemical and physical soil processes. However, most studies on microbial communities have been limited to the top soil layer. These studies disregarded deeper soil horizons although subsurface microorganisms are crucial for the degradation of natural organic compounds or contaminants and the maintenance of groundwater quality. Therefore, vertical soil profiles down to approximately 4 m of depth from two watered sites and one non-watered site were investigated for the structural (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFAs) and the functional (extracellular hydrolytic enzymes) microbial community composition. Furthermore, additional microbial (by SIR), physical and chemical soil parameters were obtained from the same soil samples. The microbial biomass did not differ between watered sites and the non-watered site, however considerable fractions of the microbial biomass (25-42% by PLFA and 42-58% by SIR) were located in 40-340 cm depth at all sites. The microbial activity (CO2 emission) and the specific respiration (qCO2) were highest at the watered sites. The microbial community structure differed significantly between watered and non-watered sites (predominantly below 100 cm depth), whereas the functional structure (based on the relative enzyme pattern) differed significantly between all sites. The latter finding could probably be explained by different soil structures in each soil profile rather than by flooding. Proportions of the bacterial PLFAs 16:1ω5, 16:1ω7, cy17:0 and 18:1ω9t, and the long chained PLFAs 22:1ω9 and 24:1ω9 were more prominent at the watered sites, whereas branched, saturated PLFAs (iso/anteiso) dominated at the non-watered site. The PLFA community indices indicated stress response and higher nutrient availability due to flooding. The analysis of extracellular soil enzymes revealed that acid phosphatase showed highest absolute activities at all field sites throughout the soil depth transect and was followed by L-leucine aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase. Combining the structural and the functional diversity of the microbial community in one analysis revealed significant correlations between the PLFA pattern and specific enzymes activities in the non-watered site. However, at the watered sites these relationships were not detected and the same factors appeared uncoupled from each other. Overall, this implies that adding labile nutrients (i.e. DOC or DON by flooding) to a soil where other nutrients are limiting microbial growth (i.e. P as indicated by acid phosphatase) increases microbial activity but not biomass. This in turn results in waste respiration by overflow metabolism. Additionally, slight nutrient leaching (e.g. nitrate) into the groundwater is observed due to P-limiting conditions. No differences in absolute and specific enzyme activities between watered sites and the non-watered site indicated complex organic matter input at the recharge sites to be impeded by flooding water pretreatment. In conclusion, water recharge processes resulted in a microbial community adapted to resource and environmental conditions, which was predominantly located in the upper (100-220 cm depth) and partly in the lower vadose zone (220-280 cm depth). Given a better understanding, the system may be more widely adopted and used to provide sufficient and reliable drinking water to the city of Basel.
This paper references
10.1016/S0929-1393(02)00025-2
Surface and subsurface microbial biomass, community structure and metabolic activity as a function of soil depth and season
E. Blume (2002)
10.1046/J.1365-2664.2001.00600.X
The effects of flooding lowland wet grassland on soil macroinvertebrate prey of breeding wading birds
M. Ausden (2001)
10.1071/SR9910745
Soil fauna and soil structure
K. E. Lee (1991)
10.1007/s003740100375
Response of ATP content, respiration rate and enzyme activities in an arable and a forest soil to nutrient additions
O. Dilly (2001)
Changes in marine communities: an approach to statistical anylyses and interpretation, 2 edition
KR Clarke (2006)
10.1016/0038-0717(94)90144-9
SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS AND MICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN SOILS TREATED WITH HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SEWAGE SLUDGE
A. Fliessbach (1994)
10.1128/AEM.57.1.57-63.1991
Aerobic biodegradation potential of subsurface microorganisms from a jet fuel-contaminated aquifer.
C. Aelion (1991)
10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2005)131:6(909)
QUANTIFYING BIOLOGICAL ORGANIC CARBON REMOVAL IN GROUNDWATER RECHARGE SYSTEMS
T. Rauch (2005)
Waldstandorte beider Basel
J Burnand (1999)
10.1023/A:1006316117817
Regulation of soil phosphatase and chitinase activityby N and P availability
L. Olander (2000)
10.1093/JAOAC/77.2.481
The Persistence of Fecal-Borne Antibiotics in Soil
J. Gavalchin (1994)
10.1007/s00027-003-0645-x
Analysis of aquifer heterogeneity within a well capture zone, comparison of model data with field experiments: A case study from the river Wiese, Switzerland
C. Regli (2003)
10.2307/2403823
Earthworms, Their Ecology and Relationships with Soils and Land Use.
T. G. Piearce (1985)
10.1007/s002489900070
Microbial Communities in High and Low Recharge Environments: Implications for Microbial Transport in the Vadose Zone
D. Balkwill (1998)
10.1016/0038-0717(89)90098-9
Immobilization of enzymes on clays and soils
J. M. Sarkar (1989)
Extracellular soil enzyme activity is strongly affected by soil particle size fractions and in particular silt and clay size micro-aggregates provide attractive locations (Kandeler et al
Taylor (1999)
10.1128/MMBR.55.2.288-302.1991
Iso- and anteiso-fatty acids in bacteria: biosynthesis, function, and taxonomic significance.
T. Kaneda (1991)
10.1016/J.APSOIL.2006.09.014
Seven years of enhanced water availability influences the physiological, structural, and functional attributes of a soil microbial community
M. Williams (2007)
10.1007/s002489900143
Distribution and Composition of Microbial Populations in a Landfill Leachate Contaminated Aquifer (Grindsted, Denmark)
L. Ludvigsen (1999)
10.1016/0038-0717(93)90140-7
The metabolic quotient for CO2 (qCO2) as a specific activity parameter to assess the effects of environmental conditions, such as ph, on the microbial biomass of forest soils
T. Anderson (1993)
communities in woodland flooding systems used for drinking water production
K Schütz (2008)
10.1016/S0038-0717(00)00157-7
Linking microbial community composition to function in a tropical soil
M. Waldrop (2000)
10.1016/J.EJSOBI.2006.10.002
Soil invertebrates and ecosystem services
P. Lavelle (2006)
10.1007/978-1-4612-3090-8_3
Environmental Control of the Synthesis and Activity of Aquatic Microbial Ectoenzymes
R. Chróst (1991)
10.1007/s11104-006-0032-1
Microbial response over time to hydrologic and fertilization treatments in a simulated wet prairie
Jessica L Mentzer (2006)
10.1016/0038-0717(95)00100-X
Changes in microbial community structure during long-term incubation in two soils experimentally contaminated with metals
Å. Frostegård (1996)
Absolute (nmol g h DW soil) and specific (nmol g h Cmic DW soil) enzyme activities
Waldrop (2000)
10.1016/S0038-0717(01)00079-7
A microplate fluorimetric assay for the study of enzyme diversity in soils
M. Marx (2001)
10.2307/2403277
THE EFFECT OF DIRECT DRILLING AND MINIMAL CULTIVATION ON EARTHWORM POPULATIONS
C. Edwards (1982)
10.1016/0038-0717(93)90113-P
Shifts in the structure of soil microbial communities in limed forests as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis
Å. Frostegård (1993)
CANOCO 4.5 Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Windows User's Guide: Software for Canonical Community Ordination
C.J.F. ter Braak (2002)
10.3403/30253285
Artificial recharge of groundwater
浅野 孝 (1985)
10.2307/1312764
How Deep Is Soil?Soil, the zone of the earth's crust that is biologically active, is much deeper than has been thought by many ecologists
D. Richter (1995)
10.1017/CBO9780511615146
Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data using CANOCO
J. Lepš (2003)
10.1021/JF051468U
A gas chromatography/electron ionization-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring method for determining the fatty acid pattern in food after formation of fatty acid methyl esters.
Saskia Thurnhofer (2005)
10.1016/J.PEDOBI.2005.05.004
Floods and drought: Response of earthworms and potworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae, Enchytraeidae) to hydrological extremes in wet grassland
N. Plum (2005)
10.1201/9780203904039-16
Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities to Assess Soil Degradation and Recovery
T. Speir (2002)
10.1111/J.1745-6584.1986.TB01013.X
Microbial Biomass, Activity, and Community Structure in Subsurface Soils
T. Federle (1986)
10.1128/JB.183.24.7308-7317.2001
Bacillus subtilis metabolism and energetics in carbon-limited and excess-carbon chemostat culture.
M. Dauner (2001)
10.1016/0038-0717(94)90175-9
Microbial biomass, metabolic activity and nutritional status determined from fatty acid patterns and poly-hydroxybutyrate in agriculturally-managed soils
L. Zelles (1994)
10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00538-8
Extracellular enzyme activities during slow sand filtration in a water recharge plant.
B. Hendel (2001)
10.1002/HYP.1136
An experimental tracer study of the role of macropores in infiltration in grassland soils
M. Weiler (2003)
10.1111/J.1574-6941.2001.TB00890.X
Tracing toluene-assimilating sulfate-reducing bacteria using 13C-incorporation in fatty acids and whole-cell hybridization
O. Pelz (2001)
10.1016/0038-0717(82)90099-2
Enzyme activity in soil: Location and a possible role in microbial ecology
R. Burns (1982)
10.1111/J.1744-7348.2001.TB00107.X
Appraisal of the electrical octet method for estimating earthworm populations in arable land
O. Schmidt (2001)
10.1016/J.TREE.2003.10.002
Adaptation to natural flow regimes.
D. Lytle (2004)
10.1128/AEM.50.3.580-588.1985
Characterization of subsurface bacteria associated with two shallow aquifers in oklahoma.
D. Balkwill (1985)
10.1128/AEM.58.6.1847-1852.1992
Conversion of cis unsaturated fatty acids to trans, a possible mechanism for the protection of phenol-degrading Pseudomonas putida P8 from substrate toxicity.
H. Heipieper (1992)
10.1016/J.SOILBIO.2006.01.018
Microbial diversity in three floodplain soils at the Elbe River (Germany)
J. Rinklebe (2006)
10.5451/UNIBAS-003351950
Basler Trinkwassergewinnung in den Langen Erlen : biologische Reinigungsleistungen in den bewaldeten Wässerstellen
Daniel Rüetschi (2004)
10.1099/00221287-129-11-3303
The Cellular Fatty Acids of the Sulphate-reducing Bacteria, Desulfobacter sp., Desulfobulbus sp. and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans
J. Taylor (1983)
10.1007/BF00335958
Influence of heavy metals on the functional diversity of soil microbial communities
F. Kandeler (2004)
Flooding in groundwater recharge areas and the load of organic material herewith, affects mineralization and degradation performed by microorganisms
Shackle (2000)
10.1016/s0166-2481(98)x8001-3
Enzymology of disturbed soils.
S. Kiss (1998)
10.1016/J.SOILBIO.2007.05.025
Response of microbial communities to water stress in irrigated and drought-prone tallgrass prairie soils
M. Williams (2007)
Organic geochemistry of natural waste waters
EM Thurman (1985)
10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[1573:BUCOTS]2.0.CO;2
BOTTOM-UP CONTROL OF THE SOIL MACROFAUNA COMMUNITY IN A BEECHWOOD ON LIMESTONE: MANIPULATION OF FOOD RESOURCES
S. Scheu (1998)
10.2136/SSSAJ1940.036159950004000C0132X
Soil Science Society of America
G. G. Pohlman (1940)
10.1002/J.1551-8833.1997.TB08180.X
Biological mechanisms in slow sand filters
Monroe L. Weber-Shirk (1997)
10.1128/AEM.60.7.2483-2493.1994
Accuracy, reproducibility, and interpretation of Fatty Acid methyl ester profiles of model bacterial communities.
S. K. Haack (1994)
10.1016/J.SOILBIO.2004.05.024
Exploring the enzymatic landscape: distribution and kinetics of hydrolytic enzymes in soil particle-size fractions
M. Marx (2005)
10.1016/J.EJSOBI.2006.09.009
Earthworm communities of flooded grasslands in Matsalu, Estonia
M. Ivask (2007)
10.2136/SSSAJ1992.03615995005600010008X
Rainfall intensity affects transport of water and chemicals through macropores in no-till soil
W. Edwards (1992)
10.1128/AEM.60.9.3292-3299.1994
Changes in Ester-Linked Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles of Subsurface Bacteria during Starvation and Desiccation in a Porous Medium.
T. L. Kieft (1994)
10.1016/S0038-0717(99)00041-3
Tillage changes microbial biomass and enzyme activities in particle-size fractions of a Haplic Chernozem
E. Kandeler (1999)
10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00251-1
Variations in microbial community composition through two soil depth profiles
N. Fierer (2003)
10.1016/S0038-0717(00)00169-3
Carbon supply and the regulation of enzyme activity in constructed wetlands
V. Shackle (2000)
10.1128/AEM.55.2.468-477.1989
Enzymic analysis of the crabtree effect in glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
E. Postma (1989)
10.1128/AEM.57.8.2260-2268.1991
Biodegradation of organic compounds in vadose zone and aquifer sediments.
A. Konopka (1991)
10.1016/0272-7714(83)90139-7
The relationship between fatty acid distributions and bacterial respiratory types in contemporary marine sediments
R. J. Parkes (1983)
10.1111/j.1574-6941.2008.00608.x
Flooding forested groundwater recharge areas modifies microbial communities from top soil to groundwater table.
K. Schütz (2009)
10.1007/BF01574692
Quantitative comparisons ofin situ microbial biodiversity by signature biomarker analysis
D. White (2005)
10.1046/J.1365-2427.2001.00750.X
Response of bacterial extracellular enzymes to inundation of floodplain sediments
A. Burns (2001)
10.1016/S0016-7061(00)00082-3
Microbial communities in boreal coniferous forest humus exposed to heavy metals and changes in soil pH—a summary of the use of phospholipid fatty acids, Biolog® and 3H-thymidine incorporation methods in field studies
T. Pennanen (2001)
10.1097/00010694-197503000-00010
OBSERVATIONS ON EARTHWORM CHANNELS AND INFILTRATION ON TILLED AND UNTILLED LOESS SOIL
W. Ehlers (1975)
The Ecology of Sand Filters. Slow sand filtration: recent developments in water treatment technology (Graham NJD, ed
A Duncan (1988)
10.1016/J.APSOIL.2008.02.002
Structure and functioning of earthworm communities in woodland flooding systems used for drinking water production
K. Schütz (2008)
Subsurface Microbiology and Biochemistry. Vadose zone microbiology
TL Kieft (2001)
10.1016/0038-0717(92)90265-Y
Microbial biomass responses to seasonal change and imposed drying regimes at increasing depths of undisturbed topsoil profiles
M. V. Gestel (1992)
10.1080/10643389891254197
Environmental impact and mechanisms of the biological clogging of saturated soils and aquifer materials
P. Baveye (1998)
10.1016/0038-0717(94)00140-V
MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND pH RESPONSE IN RELATION TO SOIL ORGANIC MATTER QUALITY IN WOOD-ASH FERTILIZED, CLEAR-CUT OR BURNED CONIFEROUS FOREST SOILS
E. Bååth (1995)
active layer at the soil surface predominantly responsible for water purification (Duncan 1988, Weber-Shirk
Peters (1997)
10.1201/9780203904039.ch17
Enzymatic responses to pollution in sediments and aquatic systems.
S. Kuhbier (2002)
10.1111/J.1574-6968.1985.TB01143.X
Phospholipid, ester-linked fatty acid profiles as reproducible assays for changes in prokaryotic community structure of estuarine sediments
J. B. Guckert (1985)
10.1201/9781482285246-15
Consequences of earthworms in agricultural soils: aggregation and porosity
W. Edwards (1998)
10.1016/J.WATRES.2006.01.007
Using soil biomass as an indicator for the biological removal of effluent-derived organic carbon during soil infiltration.
T. Rauch-Williams (2006)
Soil function in a changing world: the role of invertebrate ecosystem engineers
P. Lavelle (1997)
10.1007/s002030100259
Use of isotopic and molecular techniques to link toluene degradation in denitrifying aquifer microcosms to specific microbial populations
O. Pelz (2001)
10.1128/AEM.59.11.3605-3617.1993
Phospholipid Fatty Acid composition, biomass, and activity of microbial communities from two soil types experimentally exposed to different heavy metals.
A. Frostegård (1993)
10.1016/J.APSOIL.2004.01.004
Interaction of earthworm burrows and cracks in a clayey, subsurface-drained, soil
M. Shipitalo (2004)
10.1201/9780203904039-1
Enzyme Activities and Microbiological and Biochemical Processes in Soil
P. Nannipieri (2002)
10.1007/s002489900082
Impacts of Carbon and Flooding on Soil Microbial Communities: Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles and Substrate Utilization Patterns
D. Bossio (1998)
10.1128/AEM.63.4.1531-1542.1997
Survival and phospholipid Fatty Acid profiles of surface and subsurface bacteria in natural sediment microcosms.
T. L. Kieft (1997)
Biology and ecology of earthworms
C. Edwards (1995)
10.1016/S0038-0717(01)00199-7
Comparison of microbial numbers and enzymatic activities in surface soils and subsoils using various techniques
J. Taylor (2002)
The RDA analysis above revealed strong relations between the absolute enzyme activity pattern and microbial biomass
Kandeler (2000)
Flooding forested groundwater recharge areas modifies microbial communities along a vertical soil profile down to the groundwater
K Schütz (2008)
10.2307/1310976
Lipid analysis in microbial ecology: quantitative approaches to the study of microbial communities.
J. Vestal (1989)
Bodenmikrobiologisches Monitoring – Vorschläge für eine Bodenzustandsinventur
E Kandeler (1993)
10.1128/AEM.55.9.2420-2423.1989
Microbiological comparison of surface soil and unsaturated subsurface soil from a semiarid high desert.
F. Colwell (1989)
10.1007/S10040-001-0182-4
Artificial recharge of groundwater: hydrogeology and engineering
H. Bouwer (2002)
10.1016/0038-0717(90)90094-G
Application of eco-physiological quotients (qCO2 and qD) on microbial biomasses from soils of different cropping histories
T. Anderson (1990)
10.1201/9781420039719.pt5
10 Quantifying the Effects of Earthworms on Soil Aggregation and Porosity
M. Shipitalo (2004)
10.1007/BF02413020
The use of fluorogenic substrates for measuring enzyme activity in peatlands
C. Freeman (2004)
10.1016/S0038-0717(96)00039-9
Seasonal variations in infiltration rate under no-till and conventional (disk) tillage systems as affected by Lumbricus terrestris activity
G. Willoughby (1997)
10.1016/0038-0717(95)00093-T
A critique of the microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) as a bioindicator of disturbance and ecosystem development
D. Wardle (1995)
10.1890/04-1399
APPLICATION OF LIPID ANALYSIS TO UNDERSTAND TROPHIC INTERACTIONS IN SOIL
L. Ruess (2005)
10.1007/s003740000268
Structure and function of the soil microbial community in microhabitats of a heavy metal polluted soil
E. Kandeler (2000)
10.1128/MMBR.59.1.48-62.1995
Energetics of bacterial growth: balance of anabolic and catabolic reactions.
J. Russell (1995)
10.1128/AEM.52.4.794-801.1986
Phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profile changes during nutrient deprivation of Vibrio cholerae: increases in the trans/cis ratio and proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids.
J. B. Guckert (1986)
10.1016/J.PEDOBI.2004.08.004
Species-specific earthworm population responses in relation to flooding dynamics in a Dutch floodplain soil
Mathilde I. Zorn (2005)
10.1016/S0168-1656(97)00174-0
Bioenergetic consequences of microbial adaptation to low-nutrient environments.
M. J. Teixeira de Mattos (1997)
10.1016/S0016-7061(02)00366-X
Dissolved organic matter in soil: challenging the paradigm of sorptive preservation
G. Guggenberger (2003)
10.1016/S0065-2164(08)70206-5
Microbial ecology of the terrestrial subsurface.
W. Ghiorse (1988)
10.1016/S0038-0717(97)00030-8
An inter-laboratory comparison of ten different ways of measuring soil microbial biomass C
T. Beck (1997)
10.1016/J.BAAE.2006.07.003
Effects of Collembola and fertilizers on plant performance (Triticum aestivum) and aphid reproduction (Rhopalosiphum padi)
K. Schütz (2008)
10.1016/0043-1354(96)00177-7
BACTERIAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN GROUND WATER DURING BANK FILTRATION OF LAKE WATER
I. Miettinen (1996)
10.2134/JEQ2004.0470
Microbial response to heavy metal-polluted soils: community analysis from phospholipid-linked fatty acids and ester-linked fatty acids extracts.
M. Hinojosa (2005)
10.2113/4.1.1
Microbial Processes in the Vadose Zone
P. Holden (2005)
10.1128/AEM.69.12.6961-6968.2003
Physiological and Community Responses of Established Grassland Bacterial Populations to Water Stress
R. Griffiths (2003)
10.1016/S0038-0717(03)00015-4
The implications of exoenzyme activity on microbial carbon and nitrogen limitation in soil: a theoretical model
J. Schimel (2003)
10.1007/s003740050533
Fatty acid patterns of phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides in the characterisation of microbial communities in soil: a review
L. Zelles (1999)
10.1128/AEM.60.7.2421-2430.1994
Effects of sieving, storage, and incubation temperature on the phospholipid Fatty Acid profile of a soil microbial community.
S. O. Petersen (1994)
10.1034/J.1600-0889.47.ISSUE5.3.X
Gas diffusivity and production of CO2 in deep soils of the eastern Amazon
E. Davidson (1995)
10.2136/SSSAJ1982.03615995004600050006X
Water Infiltration and Redistribution in a Silt Loam Subsoil with Vertical Worm Channels1
J. Bouma (1982)
10.1016/S0929-1393(01)00182-2
Phospholipid fatty acids in forest soil four years after organic matter removal and soil compaction
F. Ponder (2002)
10.1016/J.PEDOBI.2005.06.003
Enzyme activities as a component of soil biodiversity: A review
B. Caldwell (2005)
10.1016/J.GEODERMA.2006.08.011
Comparison of enzyme activity with depth under tea plantations and forested sites in south India
S. Venkatesan (2006)
10.1016/J.PCE.2005.12.010
Detection and cultivation of indigenous microorganisms in Mesozoic claystone core samples from the Opalinus Clay Formation (Mont Terri Rock Laboratory)
L. Mauclaire (2007)
10.1016/0038-0717(92)90061-2
Automated measurement of the respiratory response of soil microcompartments: Active microbial biomass in earthworm faeces
S. Scheu (1992)
The ecology of sand filters. Slow sand filtration: Recent developments in water treatment technology (Graham NJD, ed) pp. 163-180
A Duncan (1988)
Enzymes in the environment
R. Burns (2002)
10.1097/00010694-196910000-00007
FRACTIONATION OF PHOSPHORUS IN TWO ALLUVIAL SOILS AND PARTICLE‐SIZE SEPARATES
J. K. Syers (1969)
10.1016/J.SOILBIO.2007.03.002
Lipid composition of Collembola and their food resources in deciduous forest stands—Implications for feeding strategies
Liliane Ruess (2007)
10.2136/SSSABOOKSER5.1.2ED.C32
Intake Rate: Cylinder Infiltrometer
H. Bouwer (1986)



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar