Group Of Uniform Materials Based On Organic Salts (GUMBOS): A Review Of Their Solid State Properties And Applications
Ionic liquids (ILs) are defined as organic salts with melting points below 100 °C. Such ionic compounds are typically formed using bulky cations and/or bulky anions in order to produce liquids or lower melting solids. ILs have been widely explored in several research areas including catalysis, remediation, solvents, separations, and many others. The utility of such compounds has also been recently broadened to include solid phase ionic materials. Thus, researchers have pushed the boundaries of ILs chemistry toward the solid state and have hypothesized that valuable properties of ILs can be preserved and fine-tuned to achieve comparable properties in the solid state. In addition, as with ILs, tunability of these solid-phase materials can be achieved through simple counterion metathesis reactions. These solid-state forms of ILs have been designated as a group of uniform materials based on organic salts (GUMBOS). In contrast to ILs, these materials have an expanded melting point range of 25 to 250 °C. In this chapter, we focus on recent developments and studies from the literature that provide for fine tuning and enhancing properties through transformation and recycling of diverse ionic compounds such as dyes, antibiotics, and others into solid state ionic materials of greater utility.