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The Nature Of Near-Threshold XYZ States

M. Cleven, F. Guo, C. Hanhart, Q. Wang, Q. Zhao
Published 2016 · Physics

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We demonstrate that the recently observed $X$, $Y$, $Z$ states cannot be purely from kinematic effect. Especially the narrow near-threshold structures in elastic channels call for nearby poles of the $S$-matrix which are qualified as states. We propose a way to distinguish cusp effects from genuine states and demonstrate that (not all of) the recently observed $X$, $Y$, $Z$ states cannot be purely from kinematic effects. Especially, we show that the narrow near-threshold structures in elastic channels call for nearby poles of the $S$-matrix, since the normal kinematic cusp effect cannot produce that narrow structures in the elastic channels in contrast to genuine $S$-matrix poles. In addition, it is also discussed how spectra can be used to distinguish different scenarios proposed for the structure of those poles, such as hadro-quarkonia, tetraquarks and hadronic molecules. The basic tool employed is heavy quark spin symmetry.
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