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Closed-chest Cardiac Massage.

William B. Kouwenhoven, James R. Jude, G. Guy Knickerbocker
Published 1960 · Medicine
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Cardiac resuscitation after cardiac arrest or ventricular fibrillation has been limited by the need for open thoracotomy and direct cardiac massage. As a result of exhaustive animal experimentation a method of external transthoracic cardiac massage has been developed. Immediate resuscitative measures can now be initiated to give not only mouth-to-nose artificial respiration but also adequate cardiac massage without thoracotomy. The use of this technique on 20 patients has given an over-all permanent survival rate of 70%. Anyone, anywhere, can now initiate cardiac resuscitative procedures. All that is needed are two hands.
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