← Back to Search
Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs For The Common Cold.
S. Y. Kim, Yoon-Jung Chang, H. Cho, Y. Hwang, Y. Moon
Published 2015 · Medicine
Save to my Library
Download via 🐼 PaperPanda Download via oaDOI Download via OAB Download via LibKey Download via Google Google ScholarAnalyze on Scholarcy Visualize in Litmaps
Reduce the time it takes to create your bibliography by a factor of 10 by using the world’s favourite reference manager
Time to take this seriously.
BACKGROUND Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used for the treatment of pain and fever associated with the common cold. OBJECTIVES To determine the effects of NSAIDs versus placebo (and other treatments) on signs and symptoms of the common cold, and to determine any adverse effects of NSAIDs in people with the common cold. SEARCH METHODS We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 4, April), (January 1966 to April week 3, 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2015), CINAHL (January 1982 to April 2015) and ProQuest Digital Dissertations (January 1938 to April 2015). SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of NSAIDS in adults or children with the common cold. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Four review authors extracted data. We subdivided trials into placebo-controlled RCTs and head-to-head comparisons of NSAIDs. We extracted and summarised data on global analgesic effects (such as reduction of headache and myalgia), non-analgesic effects (such as reduction of nasal symptoms, cough, sputum and sneezing) and side effects. We expressed dichotomous outcomes as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and continuous data as mean differences (MD) or standardised mean differences (SMD). We pooled data using the fixed-effect and random-effects models. MAIN RESULTS We included nine RCTs with 1069 participants, describing 37 comparisons: six were NSAIDs versus placebo and three were NSAIDs versus NSAIDs. The overall risk of bias in the included studies was mixed. In a pooled analysis, NSAIDs did not significantly reduce the total symptom score (SMD -0.40, 95% CI -1.03 to 0.24, three studies, random-effects model), or duration of colds (MD -0.23, 95% CI -1.75 to 1.29, two studies, random-effects model). For respiratory symptoms, cough did not improve (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.66 to 0.56, two studies, random-effects model) but the sneezing score significantly improved (SMD -0.44, 95% CI -0.75 to -0.12, two studies, random-effects model). For outcomes related to the analgesic effects of NSAIDs (headache, ear pain, and muscle and joint pain) the treatment produced significant benefits. The risk of adverse effects was not high with NSAIDs (RR 2.94, 95% CI 0.51 to 17.03, two studies, random-effects model) but it is difficult to conclude that such drugs are no different from placebo. The quality of the evidence may be estimated as 'moderate' because of imprecision. The major limitations of this review are that the results of the studies are quite diverse and the number of studies for one result is quite small. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS NSAIDs are somewhat effective in relieving the discomfort caused by a cold but there is no clear evidence of their effect in easing respiratory symptoms. The balance of benefit and harms needs to be considered when using NSAIDs for colds.
This paper references
C. J. Reich (1972)
A Double-Blind Evaluation of an Aspirin-Containing Gum Tablet for Relief of the Pain of Common Sore Throat
J. Bernstein (1974)
Increased virus shedding with aspirin treatment of rhinovirus infection.
E. Stanley (1975)
Dose response to fenoprofen in an antipyretic study of fenoprofen and propoxyphene.
C. Gruber (1977)
[Therapeutic effects of fenbufen in common cold--multi-clinic double blind study].
M. Katsu (1977)
[Therapeutic utility of naproxen on acute upper respiratory infection--multi-clinical double blind study].
M. Katsu (1978)
[Clinical evaluation of Clinoril tablets in acute upper respiratory tract infections].
I. Fujimori (1982)
[Double blind controlled study of miroprofen in acute upper respiratory tract infections--comparison with ibuprofen].
M. Katsu (1982)
[A double-blind clinical evaluation of suprofen on acute upper respiratory infection. Comparison with aspirin].
I. Fujimori (1983)
[Clinical evaluation of sulindac (CLINORIL) in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection--double-blind comparison with ibuprofen].
M. Katsu (1983)
Nimesulide and antibiotics in the treatment of acute infections of the respiratory tract.
M. Reiner (1983)
Nimesulide for treatment of acute inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.
Nouri Me (1984)
[Clinical evaluation of oxaprozin in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract inflammations--a double-blind comparative study using ibuprofen as the control drug].
K. Matsumoto (1984)
[A double-blind clinical evaluation of flurbiprofen on acute upper respiratory tract inflammation--comparative study with ibuprofen].
M. Tamura (1984)
Comparative Evaluation of Antipyretic Activity of Ibuprofen and Aspirin in Children with Pyrexia of Varied Aetiology
P. Kandoth (1984)
A multi-centre, double-blind randomized study to assess the efficacy and tolerance of sulindac versus placebo in the symptomatic treatment of patients with upper respiratory tract infection.
D. Ebel (1985)
A double-blind comparison of fenoprofen calcium, acetaminophen, and placebo in the palliative treatment of common nonbacterial upper respiratory infections
P. Ryan (1987)
Evaluation of an alpha agonist alone and in combination with a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent in the treatment of experimental rhinovirus colds.
S. J. Sperber (1989)
[Use of nimesulide in inflammations of the upper respiratory tract].
D. Passali (1989)
Adverse Effects of Aspirin, Acetaminophen, and Ibuprofen on Immune Function, Viral Shedding, and Clinical Status in Rhinovirus-Infected Volunteers
N. Graham (1990)
A placebo‐controlled model for assaying systemic analgesics in children
B. Schachtel (1993)
Symptomatic treatment of common cold in children with a new combination of naproxen sodium plus pseudoephedrine hydrochloride: a comparative trial against pseudoephedrine syrup.
F. Martínez Gallardo (1994)
Systematic Reviews: Identifying relevant studies for systematic reviews
K. Dickersin (1994)
Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?
A. Jadad (1996)
Antipyretic efficacy of tiaprofenic acid in febrile children
F. Vauzelle-Kervroedan (1996)
Common cold and high-dose ipratropium bromide: use of anticholinergic medication as an indicator of reflex-mediated hypersecretion.
B. Ostberg (1997)
C. Hawkey (1999)
Assessment of the efficacy and safety of paracetamol, ibuprofen and nimesulide in children with upper respiratory tract infections
B. Ulukol (1999)
Valoración de la eficacia y seguridad de tolmetín sódico (400 mg c/8 h) vs naproxén sódico (275 mg c/8 h) para el tratamiento sintomático de las infecciones respiratorias superiores
Andrés Sánchez González (1999)
Relief of sore throat with the anti-inflammatory throat lozenge flurbiprofen 8.75 mg: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety.
Norma Watson (2000)
The diagnosis and treatment of cough.
R. Irwin (2000)
Association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding/perforation: an overview of epidemiologic studies published in the 1990s.
S. Hernández-Díaz (2000)
Symposium on molecular pathogenesis of respiratory diseases and its clinical implication. 5. Respiratory tract infection.
A. Saito (2001)
Efficacia e tollerabilità di un collutorio a base di diclofenac nel trattamento delle affezioni delle alte vie respiratorie: Studio in doppia cecità verso flurbiprofen collutorio
F. Pagella (2001)
Efficacy and Tolerability of the Anti-inflammatory Throat Lozenge Flurbiprofen 8.75mg in the Treatment of Sore Throat
S. Benrimoj (2001)
The Therapeutic Effectiveness of Ibuprofen on the Symptoms of Naturally Acquired Common Colds
B. Winther (2001)
Upper respiratory tract infection.
C. Del Mar (2002)
Viral respiratory infection therapy: historical perspectives and current trials.
J. Gwaltney (2002)
Multidose flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenges in the treatment of sore throat: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in UK general practice centres.
M. Blagden (2002)
A metaanalysis of severe upper gastrointestinal complications of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.
J. Ofman (2002)
Tolerability of ibuprofen, aspirin and paracetamol for the treatment of cold and flu symptoms and sore throat pain.
N. Moore (2002)
Upper Respiratory Infection
J. O'kane (2002)
Demonstration of dose response of flurbiprofen lozenges with the sore throat pain model
B. Schachtel (2002)
Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on sore throat pain and other pain symptoms associated with acute upper respiratory tract infection.
R. Eccles (2003)
Lowest Effective Single Dose of Diclofenac for Antipyretic and Analgesic Effects in Acute Febrile Sore Throat
P. Géhanno (2003)
The common cold
T. Heikkinen (2003)
Risk of cardiovascular events and rofecoxib: cumulative meta-analysis
P. Jüni (2004)
Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza
R. Eccles (2005)
External validity of randomised controlled trials: “To whom do the results of this trial apply?”
P. Rothwell (2005)
Aspirin compared with acetaminophen in the treatment of fever and other symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in adults: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-dose, 6-hour dose-ranging study.
C. Bachert (2005)
Cough and the Common Cold
M. Pratter (2006)
Data extraction errors in meta-analyses that use standardized mean differences.
P. Gøtzsche (2007)
Influence of loxoprofen use on recovery from naturally acquired upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial.
M. Goto (2007)
Randomized Controlled Trials
A. Jadad (2007)
Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies
J. Higgins (2008)
editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.2 [updated September 2009
JPT Higgins (2008)
Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Death Associated With the Use of Nonsteroidal Anti‐Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Among Healthy Individuals: A Nationwide Cohort Study
EL Fosbøl (2009)
Increased mortality and cardiovascular morbidity associated with use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in chronic heart failure.
G. Gislason (2009)
A Double-Blind Study of Zaltoprofen for the Treatment of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
A. Azuma (2009)
NSAIDs. In: Young C, ed
PC Gøtzsche (2009)
Randomized Controlled Trial
V. Preedy (2010)
Relationship between obesity and asthma symptoms among children in Ahvaz, Iran: a cross sectional study
T. Z. Kajbaf (2011)
Interventions for latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA) in adults.
S. Brophy (2011)
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paracetamol and ketoprofren lysine salt for pain control in children with pharyngotonsillitis cared by family pediatricians
N. Ruperto (2011)
Respiratory Tract Infections
J. Wilson (2011)
Antipyretic and Analgesic Effects of Zaltoprofen for the Treatment of Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infection: Verification of a Noninferiority Hypothesis Using Loxoprofen Sodium
A. Azuma (2011)
Efficacy of low-dose celecoxib in patients with acute pain.
B. Schachtel (2011)
Antihistamines for the common cold (Protocol)
Avadhesh Saraswat (2011)
Nasal decongestants for the common cold
S. Tai (2012)
Nimesulide Granules for the Treatment of Acute Inflammation of the Ear, Nose or Throat
E. Nouri (2012)
Oral antihistamine-decongestant-analgesic combinations for the common cold.
A. De Sutter (2012)
Double-Blind Study of Nimesulide in Divers with inflammatory Disorders of the Ear, Nose and Throat
G. Banchini (2012)
Treatment of Upper Airways Inflammation with Nimesulide
L. Bellussi (2012)
Efficacy and Tolerability of Nimesulide and Lysine-Acetylsalicylate in the Treatment of Paediatric Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Inflammation
L. Cappella (2012)
A Double-Blind Comparison of Nimesulide and Mefenamic Acid in the Treatment of Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Children
R. Salzberg (2012)
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) for the common cold in adults.
Siyuan Li (2013)
Flurbiprofen microgranules for relief of sore throat: a randomised, double-blind trial.
M. Russo (2013)
Diagnosing somatisation in adults in the first consultation: moving beyond diagnosis by exclusion.
Brett Mann (2013)
Intranasal ipratropium bromide for the common cold.
Zaina H Albalawi (2013)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the common cold.
S. Y. Kim (2013)
Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings.
Susan M. Smith (2014)
M. WoodJohn (2015)
Antihistamines for the common cold.
A. De Sutter (2015)
Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Omid Azizi Farzan Modarresi (2015)
This paper is referenced by
The Risk of SARS‐COV‐2 Infection and Covid‐19 Severity Associated with The Exposure to Non‐Steroidal Anti‐Inflammatory Drugs: Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis
Luísa Prada (2021)
Akutní respirační infekce - symptomatická samoléčba u dospělých
Hana Kotolová (2021)
Herbal medicines (Eunkyosan and Samsoeum) for treating the common cold: a protocol for a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial
Kwan-Il Kim (2020)
High-risk nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prescribing in primary care: results from National Medical Care Survey Malaysia
Wen Yea Hwong (2020)
Sewage treatment using Aqueous Phase Reforming for reuse purpose
D. Faria (2020)
COVID-19: Is There Evidence for the Use of Herbal Medicines as Adjuvant Symptomatic Therapy?
D. Silveira (2020)
Allergie und der respiratorische Infekt
K. Stockert (2020)
Progression of Korean Herbal Medicine and Conventional Medicine Administration for Cough in Patients with Myocardial Infraction Relapse Suspected of Developing Acute Respiratory Infection: Case Report
Bo-min Kim (2019)
De la toux aiguë à la toux chronique chez l’adulte : mise au point sur un motif de consultation fréquent
L. Guilleminault (2019)
Risks Related to the Use of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adult and Pediatric Patients
G. Voiriot (2019)
Treatment of signs and symptoms of the common cold using EPs 7630 - results of a meta-analysis
A. Schapowal (2019)
Effect of Rosa canina L. (Rose-hip) on cold during winter season in a middle-class population: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial
K. Winther (2018)
Long-term exposure of Mytilus galloprovincialis to diclofenac, Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen: Insights into bioavailability, biomarkers and transcriptomic changes.
M. Mezzelani (2018)
Non-steroids anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of peritonsillar abscess in pharyngitis: a French longitudinal study in primary care.
Cedric Piroulas (2018)
Eco-pharmacovigilance of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Necessity and opportunities.
Bingshu He (2017)
The symptomatic treatment of the common-cold and influenza
Hana Kotolová (2017)
Synergistic interaction between diclofenac and pyrilamine on nociception, inflammation, and gastric damage in rats.
M. Ortiz (2017)
Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Treatment for Acute Cough Associated With the Common Cold: CHEST Expert Panel Report
Chest Expert Cough Panel (2017)
Leitliniengerechte Therapie von Schnupfen und Sinusitis
N. Dippold (2017)
Characteristics of the use of cold combination products among older ambulatory patients at the National Hospital Organization Tochigi Medical Center in Japan: a retrospective single-center observational study
Junpei Komagamine (2017)
Effect of Flavonoids on Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Immune Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Vaughan Somerville (2016)
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alone or combined, for pain relief in acute otitis media in children.
Alies Sjoukes (2016)
Community acquired respiratory virus infections in cancer patients—Guideline on diagnosis and management by the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for haematology and Medical Oncology
M. von Lilienfeld-Toal (2016)
Is there randomized controlled trial evidence to support the use of non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs in people with the common cold?
Steven Robert Brown (2016)
Antihistamines for the common cold.
A. De Sutter (2015)
Exploration of Phytochemical-Rich Extracts of Selected Canadian Plants Against Streptococcal Pharyngitis
Niluni M. Wijesundara (2015)
Drug therapy for the common cold
S. Kim (2015)
Antibiotic Resistance: What are the Opportunities for Primary Care in Alleviating the Crisis?
M. Hansen (2015)
Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?
L. Harden (2015)
Improvement of common cold with Pycnogenol®: a Winter registry study.
G. Belcaro (2014)
The Common Cold: Potential for Future Prevention or Cure
M. Passioti (2014)
Patient presentation and physician management of upper respiratory tract infections: a retrospective review of over 5 million primary clinic consultations in Hong Kong
K. Kung (2014)See more