Nanotechnology: The “Top‐Down” And “Bottom‐Up” Approaches
Parvez Iqbal, J. Preece, P. M. Mendes
Published 2012 · Materials Science
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
Nanotechnology has grown at an enormous rate for the past three decades, and recent advances in nanostructured materials and nanodevices have opened up new opportunities in a variety of applications, ranging from information and communication technology to healthcare and medicine. Herein, an overview of nanotechnology is given, describing the origins of the field, present technology, ongoing research, and future aspirations. In addition, the two possible methodologies of fabrication—the top-down and bottom-up approaches—are discussed, covering the merits and drawbacks of each approach. As an example of a top-down procedure, the fabrication of electronic integrated circuits and the foreseen limitations of the procedure for further miniaturization are described. The bottom-up approach, through self-assembly and supramolecular chemistry, provides an exciting alternative route either combined with the top-down approach or on its own. Keywords: nanotechnology; top-down approach; bottom-up approach; nanotools; nanostructured materials; nanodevices; nanofabrication; self-assembled monolayers; langmuir-blodgett films
This paper references
Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology.
J. Love (2005)
In situ STM imaging of individual molecules in two-component self-assembled monolayers of 3-mercaptopropionic acid and 1-decanethiol on Au(111)
T. Sawaguchi (2001)
A. Ulman (1991)
Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics
S. A. McDonald (2005)
Nanocantilever signal transduction by electron transfer.
P. G. Datskos (2002)
Quantifying signal changes in nano-wire based biosensors.
L. De Vico (2011)
Controlled release of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in encapsulated microbubbles to tumor cells via sonoporation and associated cellular bioeffects.
F. Yang (2011)
An introduction to computational nanomechanics and materials
W. Liu (2004)
Using azobenzene-embedded self-assembled monolayers to photochemically control cell adhesion reversibly.
Dingbin Liu (2009)
Photoreactivity in Self-Assembled Monolayers Formed from Asymmetric Disulfides Having para-Substituted Azobenzenes
H. Akiyama (2003)
Patterning self-assembled monolayers
R. Smith (2004)
Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of nanoparticles.
M. Youns (2011)
Tunneling spin injection into single layer graphene.
W. Han (2010)
H. W. Kroto (1985)
Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots
N. Peyghambarian (1989)
Technologies for nanofluidic systems: top-down vs. bottom-up--a review.
D. Mijatović (2005)
Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells
L. Tsakalakos (2007)
Self-assembled monolayers prepared from ω-thiophene-functionalized n-alkyltrichlorosilane on silicon substrates
D. Appelhans (2000)
Gold nanoparticle patterning of silicon wafers using chemical e-beam lithography.
P. Mendes (2004)
Organized monolayers by adsorption. 1. Formation and structure of oleophobic mixed monolayers on solid surfaces
J. Sagiv (1980)
Non‐Covalent Chemistry on Surface‐Confined, Isolated Dendrimers
H.W.J. van Manen (2002)
Titania Nanofilm with Electrical Switching Effects upon Hydrogen/Air Exposure at Room Temperature
M. Kumar (2009)
Recent progress in the therapeutic applications of nanotechnology
Melani A Solomon (2011)
High Performance Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors
Y. Cui (2003)
Nanofabrication of self-assembled monolayers using scanning probe lithography.
G. Y. Liu (2000)
Formation and Structure of Self-Assembled Monolayers.
A. Ulman (1996)
Temperature-responsive self-assembled monolayers of oligo(ethylene glycol): control of biomolecular recognition.
H. Zareie (2008)
Comparisons of self-assembled monolayers on silver and gold: mixed monolayers derived from HS(CH2)21X and HS(CH2)10Y (X, Y = CH3, CH2OH) have similar properties
P. E. Laibinis (1991)
Focused-ion-beam fabrication of ZnO nanorod-based UV photodetector using the in-situ lift-out technique
O. Lupan (2008)
Characterization of charge storage in redox-active self-assembled monolayers
Kristian M. Roth (2002)
Stimuli-responsive surfaces for bio-applications.
P. Mendes (2008)
Conducting and magnetic Langmuir-Blodgett films.
D. Talham (2004)
Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films
K. Novoselov (2004)
High-Resolution STM and XPS Studies of Thiophene Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au(111)
J. Noh (2002)
Tuning Specific Biomolecular Interactions Using Electro‐Switchable Oligopeptide Surfaces
C. L. Yeung (2010)
Photoactive three-dimensional monolayers: porphyrin-alkanethiolate-stabilized gold clusters.
H. Imahori (2001)
Chemistry meets computing
P. Ball (2000)
Nanowires for integrated multicolor nanophotonics.
Y. Huang (2005)
Nanometer-Scale Fabrication by Simultaneous Nanoshaving and Molecular Self-Assembly
Song Xu (1997)
Bottom-up growth of fully transparent contact layers of indium tin oxide nanowires for light-emitting devices.
C. O'Dwyer (2009)
Efficient biosensor interfaces based on space-controlled self-assembled monolayers.
H. Tokuhisa (2009)
Nanofabrication by scanning probe microscope lithography: A review
A. A. Tseng (2005)
Functionalization of Gold Surfaces for Specific and Reversible Attachment of a Fused β-Galactosidase and Choline-Receptor Protein
J. Madoz (1997)
Hybrid top-down and bottom-up fabrication approach for wafer-scale plasmonic nanoplatforms.
A. Dhawan (2011)
Nanoelectronics from the bottom up.
W. Lu (2007)
Core/multishell nanowire heterostructures as multicolor, high-efficiency light-emitting diodes.
F. Qian (2005)
Precision chemical engineering: integrating nanolithography and nanoassembly
P. Mendes (2004)
Toward Future Systems with Nanoscale Devices: Overcoming the Reliability Challenge
W. Rao (2011)
Recent developments in proton exchange membranes for fuel cells
R. Devanathan (2008)
Surface phase behavior of n-alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers adsorbed on Au(111): An atomic force microscope study
K. Tamada (1997)
Nanocomposites of single-walled carbon nanotubes and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) for transparent and conductive film
Tran Thanh Tung (2011)
Novel 3,4-disubstituted thiophenes for weak passivation of Au nanoparticles
P. Iqbal (2006)
Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics
X. Michalet (2005)
Three-Dimensional Nanostructure Construction via Nanografting: Positive and Negative Pattern Transfer
J. Liu (2002)
Evidence for a thermal contribution to emission intermittency in single CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals
U. Banin (1999)
Positioning single atoms with a scanning tunnelling microscope
D. Eigler (1990)
Guided molecular self-assembly: a review of recent efforts
Jiyun C Huie (2003)
From Top-Down to Bottom-Up to Hybrid Nanotechnologies: Road to Nanodevices
B. K. Teo (2006)
Carbon nanotube-based sensors.
N. Sinha (2006)
Self-assembled monolayers from organosulfur compounds : A comparison between sulfides, disulfides, and thiols
C. Jung (1998)
Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon
S. Iijima (1991)
A Compact Model for Dual-Gate One-Dimensional FET: Application to Carbon-Nanotube FETs
Sébastien Frégonèse (2011)
Impact of nanotechnology on drug delivery.
O. Farokhzad (2009)
Synthesis of thiol-derivatised gold nanoparticles in a two-phase Liquid–Liquid system
M. Brust (1994)
Optical Stethoscopy : Image Recording with Resolution λ/20
D. Pohl (1984)
Adsorption of Proteins to Hydrophobic Sites on Mixed Self-Assembled Monolayers†
E. Ostuni (2003)
A case study on modeling and optimizing photolithography stage of semiconductor fabrication process
Hyun-Jin Kim (2010)
Formation and evaluation of self-assembled monolayers derived from conjugated silylthiophene derivatives
Nami Choi (1999)
Therapeutic Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery in Cancer
Kwangjae Cho (2008)
A. Ulman (1991)
Phase separation of binary self-assembled thiol monolayers composed of 1-hexadecanethiol and 3-mercaptopropionic acid on Au(111) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and cyclic voltammetry
D. Hobara (1998)
Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices
A. Aricò (2005)
Recent Progress on Nafion-Based Nanocomposite Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications
Nonhlanhla Precious Cele (2009)
Single molecule electronic devices.
Hyunwook Song (2011)
Conference scene: nanotechnology and medicine: the next big thing is really small.
Ennio Tasciotti (2009)
Templated Self‐Assembly of Block Copolymers: Top‐Down Helps Bottom‐Up
J. Cheng (2006)
Monolayer films prepared by the spontaneous self-assembly of symmetrical and unsymmetrical dialkyl sulfides from solution onto gold substrates: structure, properties, and reactivity of constituent functional groups
E. B. Troughton (1988)
Nanomaterials: applications in cancer imaging and therapy.
J. A. Barreto (2011)
Molecular engineering: An approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation
D. Ke (1981)
“Catch-and-release” of porphyrins by photoswitchable self-assembled monolayers
Fiorella L. Callari (2007)
Experimental Spin Ratchet
M. Costache (2010)
Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers.
S. Strauf (2006)
New approaches to nanofabrication: molding, printing, and other techniques.
B. D. Gates (2005)
This paper is referenced by
Motion Control, Planning and Manipulation of Nanowires Under Electric-Fields in Fluid Suspension
Kaiyan Yu (2015)
Green Synthesis of Microbial Nanoparticle: Approaches to Application
Jyotika Purohit (2019)
Potential of Nanotechnology for Rural Applications
Sumanta Mondal (2020)
MATERIALS 2 , 085408 ( 2018 ) Lithiation properties of sp 2 carbon allotropes
Aurelien Lherbier (2018)
Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effects of Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles from Cyperus conglomeratus Root Extracts on Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7
Amani Ghassan Al-Nuairi (2019)
Nanoparticles and its biomedical applications in health and diseases: special focus on drug delivery
Nuzhat Zahin (2019)
Bottom-Up and Top-Down Approaches for MgO
Jitendra Pal Singh (2020)
Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Their Applications in Water and Wastewater Treatment
Surya Pratap Goutam (2020)
The dispersion of fine chitosan particles by beads-milling
E. Rochima (2018)
Interfacing cells with nanostructured electrochemical sensors for enhanced biomedical sensing
Frankie J Rawson (2014)
Seafood waste: a source for preparation of commercially employable chitin/chitosan materials
Monika Yadav (2019)
The History of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: From Chemical–Physical Applications to Nanomedicine
S. Bayda (2019)
Electrically Responsive Surfaces: Experimental and Theoretical Investigations
Eleonora Cantini (2016)
Electronic Properties of Heterostructures of 2D Materials: An Ab-Initio Study
Wafa Hadadi (2020)
Customizing Properties of β-Chitin in Squid Pen (Gladius) by Chemical Treatments
Alessandro Ianiro (2014)
Social, Environmental and Ethical Impacts of Nanotechnology
Rajesh Purohit (2017)
Synthesis and characterization of Pt1-xPdx nanoparticles and their suitability for NH3 oxidation catalysis
Martin Jensen (2017)
Attachment of engineered silver nanoparticles to collector surfaces - A batch sorption study using model and environmental surfaces
P. Abraham (2015)
Self-assembled peptide nano fi ber templatedALDgrowthof TiO 2 andZnO semiconductor nanonetworks
R. Garifullin (2016)
Development of force and electron microscopy for thequantification of nanoparticle number concentrationmeasurements
Ashwini B Prasad (2015)
Design of catalytically active porous gold structures from a bottom-up method: The role of metal traces in CO oxidation and oxidative coupling of methanol
Cansunur Demirci (2019)
Biomolecule Silver Nanoparticle-Based Materials for Biomedical Applications
M. Ahumada (2018)
Glass/Au Composite Membranes with Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized inside Pores for Selective Ion Transport
Denis Lebedev (2020)
Particle packing and rheology of cement pastes at different replacement levels of cement by α-Al2O3 submicron particles
M. Stefancic (2017)
A method for top down preparation of chitosan nanoparticles and nanofibers.
Ruchira N. Wijesena (2015)
Natural Composite Systems for Bioinspired Materials.
Joseph A. Frezzo (2016)
Wireless Sensor’s Civil Applications, Prototypes, and Future Integration Possibilities: A Review
M. Ayaz (2018)
Exploring supramolecular Interactions in hybrid materials
D. Rosso (2015)