Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Changes In Sensory And Motor Systems During Centrally Elicited Attack.

J. A. Flynn, S. B. Edwards, R. Bandler
Published 1971 · Psychology, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
While emotion can be a subjective experience and emotions are revealed to some extent by facial expressions and changes of respiration, heart rate and other autonomic states, behavior itself is a primary indicator of emotions. The present work deals with a form of emotional behavior, specifically attack, which is one component of fighting. Since the work of Cannon, it has been acknowledged that sympathetically and hormonally mediated changes occur that prepare the organism for fight and flight. It is the thesis of this article that sensory and motor systems are similarly readied to act in specific ways under the influence of electrical stimulation of the brain that induces attack behavior. Specifically electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus that elicits attack influences the visual system. This is shown by the difference between the frequency of lunges directed towards a mouse when it is presented to the eye ipsilateral and to that contralateral to the side of the hypothalamus stimulated. The contralateral eye mediates more lunges. The visual system is also gated by hypothalamic stimulation. A bite ensues in some instances after section of the trigeminal nerve, but not in others. After the successful cats are blindfolded they no longer bite. The tactile system around the mouth and lips is also influenced by hypothalamic stimulation. A more extensive region around the mouth and lip on the contralateral side than on the ipsilateral side responds to touch by eliciting head turning and jaw opening. The motor system for jaw closure and for striking are similarly influenced by hypothalamic stimulation. Reflexes become functional under the influence of stimulation. In the case of attack behavior, the organism's sensory and motor systems are primed to bring about patterned reflexes, which constitute at least in part the overt behavior when suitable stimuli are present in the environment.
This paper references



This paper is referenced by
10.1126/science.177.4046.364
Biting Attack Elicied by Stimulation of the Ventral Midbrain Tegmentum of Cats
R. Bandler (1972)
10.1109/ICMSS.2009.5302411
Oriented Complexity Analyzing and Designing Method of War System
C. Chen (2009)
10.1017/S0140525X00012760
Assessing internal affairs
H. Anisman (1982)
10.1017/S0140525X00012905
Panic, separation anxiety, and endorphins
D. Klein (1982)
10.1037/H0077199
A comparison of hypothalamically induced biting attack with natural predatory behavior in the cat.
G. Berntson (1976)
10.1016/0006-8993(79)90305-6
Midbrain projections to the trigeminal, facial and hypoglossal nuclei in the opossum. A study using axonal transport techniques
W. M. Panneton (1979)
10.1017/S0140525X00012930
Introspection and cultural knowledge systems
C. Lutz (1982)
10.1109/CACWD.2004.1349258
Research on the cooperation of the virtual enterprise using metasynthetic engineering
Danli Wang (2004)
10.1007/978-1-4757-5969-3_3
The Limbic System
R. Joseph (1990)
10.1017/S0140525X00061999
Neurotransmitter organization of aggressive behavior
L. Decsi (1979)
10.1016/B978-0-12-558703-7.50017-6
AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR PRODUCED BY BRAIN STIMULATION IN NONHUMAN PRIMATES: AN ASSESSMENT
A. Perachio (1986)
Persistent problems in the physical control of the brain (James Arthur lecture on the evolution of the human brain, no. 44, 1974).
E. S. Valenstein (1975)
10.1086/208523
Must All Affect Be Mediated By Cognition
R. Zajonc (1985)
10.1016/0006-8993(72)90616-6
Corticospinal control of striking in centrally elicited attack behavior.
S. B. Edwards (1972)
10.1016/S0149-7634(97)00022-5
The interaction of cognitive and stimulus–response processes in the control of behaviour
F. Toates (1997)
10.1002/1098-2337(1979)5:3<257::AID-AB2480050303>3.0.CO;2-7
Centrally elicited aggressive behavior: A model system for the study of episodic neurobehavioral pathologies?
R. Bandler (1979)
10.1017/S0140525X00012978
On the complexity of emotion
J. R. Royce (1982)
10.1017/S0140525X00062105
Are neurophysiological techniques adequate to account for agonistic behavior
P. Leyhausen (1979)
10.1016/0006-8993(72)90155-2
Poststimulus excitability at attack sites in the cat's hypothalamus.
M. Sledjeski (1972)
10.1177/00220345000790101501
The Effect of a Cholecystokinin Agonist on Masseter Muscle Activity in the Cat
P. Sitthisomwong (2000)
10.1017/S0140525X00012838
Emotions are objective events
E. Fonberg (1982)
10.1002/AJPA.1330380264
The influence of target sex and dominance on evoked attack in Rhesus monkeys.
M. Alexander (1973)
10.2466/pr0.1989.64.2.423
Social Intelligence, a Neurological System?
E. H. Taylor (1989)
10.1017/S0140525X00062130
Changing methodology in aggression research
R. Rodgers (1979)
10.1017/S0140525X00013054
Archaeology of mind
J. Panksepp (1982)
10.1017/S0140525X00062166
Offense, defense, submission, and attack: Problems of logic and lexicon
R. J. Waldbillig (1979)
From muscles to motivation.
C. R. Gallistel (1980)
10.1017/S0140525X00012875
From stimulus-bound emotive command systems to drive-free emotions
C. Izard (1982)
10.1016/B978-0-12-547440-5.50012-7
Chapter 6 – Subcortical Stimulation for Motivation and Reinforcement
C. R. Gallistel (1981)
10.1017/S0140525X00062191
Motivational systems, motivational mechanisms, and aggression
D. Adams (1979)
10.1111/j.1440-1614.2006.01837.x
Empirical basis and forensic application of affective and predatory violence.
J. Meloy (2006)
10.1016/0166-4328(80)90027-3
An inability of γ-acetylenic GABA to block eating evoked by hypothalamic stimulation
E. S. Valenstein (1980)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar