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Effects Of Fresh And Aged Copper Contaminations On Soil Microorganisms

Berndt-Michael Wilke, Maike Mai, A. Gattinger, M. Schloter, P. Gong
Published 2005 · Chemistry

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The aim of the investigation was to compare effects of fresh and aged amendments of copper (Cu) on the active, aerobic, heterotrophic microbial biomass by respiration and potential-nitrification measurements and on microbial-community structure by means of phospholipid-fatty-acid (PLFA) analyses. An Ap horizon (10–20 cm) of a Luvisol was used for the experiments. Fresh copper amendments were carried out by spraying a CuCl2 solution on the soil. Aged heavy-metal amendments were achieved by mixing the control soil with monocontaminated soil derived from an abandoned site in Denmark which has been used as a wood-preservation plant. As expected, fresh contaminations were more effective to reduce potential nitrification and respiration than aged contaminations if the total Cu concentration (Cut) in soils is considered. There were no differences between aged and fresh contaminations if their effects were referred to NH4Cl-extractable concentrations (CuAN). The lowest concentration reducing cumulative substrate-induced respiration (CR) amounted to 0.33 mg CuAN (kg dm)–1. PLFA analyses revealed Cu contaminations to decrease mainly aerobic bacteria. Effects were more pronounced using the contaminated soil as an inoculum. Apparently the duration of contamination is more important to the change of microbial-community structure than the actual availability of the contaminant. Wirkungen frischer und gealterter Kupfer-Kontaminationen auf Bodenmikroorganismen Ziel der Untersuchungen war es, Wirkungen frischer und gealterter Kontaminationen mit Kupfer (Cu) auf die aktive, aerobe, heterotrophe mikrobielle Biomasse anhand von Atmungs- und Nitrifikationsmessungen sowie mittels Phospholipidfettsaure-Analysen (PLFA) vergleichend zu untersuchen. Die Versuche wurden mit dem Ap-Horizont eines Luvisols als Kontrollboden durchgefuhrt. Frische Kontaminationen wurden durch Aufspruhen von CuCl2-Losungen auf den Kontrollboden vorgenommen. Gealterte Cu-Kontaminationen wurden durch Mischung von Cu-belastetem Bodenmaterial eines danischen Altlastenstandortes (Holzimpragnierung) mit dem Kontrollboden hergestellt. Erwartungsgemas reduzierten die frischen Cu-Kontaminationen die potenzielle Nitrifikation und Parameter der Atmungskurven starker als die gealterten, wenn die Cu-Gesamtgehalte (Cut) als Bezugsgrose herangezogen wurden. Wirkungen frischer und gealterter Kontaminationen unterschieden sich dagegen nicht, wenn sie auf die mit NH4Cl extrahierbaren Anteile bezogen wurden. Die geringste Cu-Kontamination, die die kumulative, substratinduzierte Atmung (CR) hemmte, betrug 0,33 mg CuAN kg–1. Die PLFA-Analysen zeigten, dass Cu-Kontaminationen vornehmlich die Abundanz aerober Bakterien reduzierten. Starkere Wirkungen wurden bei Verwendung des danischen Altlastbodens als Inokulum nachgewiesen. Offensichtlich ist die Dauer der Kontamination entscheidender fur strukturelle Veranderungen der mikrobiellen Biomasse als die aktuelle Bioverfugbarkeit der Kontaminanten.
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