Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Tunable Photoluminescence From Graphene Oxide.

Chih-Tao Chien, S. Li, Wei-Jung Lai, Yun-Chieh Yeh, Hsin-An Chen, I. Chen, L. Chen, K. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, Mingwei Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, C. Chen
Published 2012 · Materials Science, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Graphene oxide (GO) is a graphene sheet modified with oxygen functional groups in the form of epoxy and hydroxy groups on the basal plane and various other types at the edges. It exhibits interesting steady-state photoluminescence (PL) properties. For example, low-energy fluorescence in red to near infrared (NIR) wavelengths (from 600– 1100 nm) has been detected for suspensions and solid thin films of as-synthesized GO. 3] In addition, broad luminescence from 400 to 800 nm from oxygen plasma-treated, mechanically exfoliated, single-layer graphene sheet has been reported. Blue fluorescence with a relatively narrow bandwidth when excited with UV irradiation has also been detected from chemically reduced GO (rGO) and graphene quantum dots. 6] Recently, chemically modified GO or rGO with n-butylamine or Mn has also demonstrated PL emission at a range of energies. 10] A detailed explanation of the origin of such variable energy PL in GO has yet to be elucidated. This is partly because the sample preparation and reduction methods varied, making it difficult to compare the results. Herein, we have prepared GO suspensions that exhibit virtually all of the PL features observed by different groups, through careful and gradual reduction of the GO. The systematic evolution of the electronic structure and comprehensive analysis of steady-state and transient PL along with photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy measurements indicate that two different types of electronically excited states are responsible for the observed emission characteristics. GO was synthesized using the modified Hummers method, the details of which have been reported. GO usually contains a large fraction of sp hybridized carbon atoms bound to oxygen functional groups, which makes it an insulator. Reduction can be achieved chemically (e.g. hydrazine exposure) or by thermal annealing in inert environments. Photothermal reduction of GO can be achieved by exposing GO samples to a Xenon flash in ambient conditions. In this study, we prepared aqueous GO solutions and subjected them to steady-state Xe lamp irradiation (500 W) with different exposure times of up to three hours. In contrast to reduction by an instantaneous flash, this method provides a controllable, gradual transformation from GO to rGO, allowing exploration of the PL evolution and emission mechanisms from as-synthesized GO to rGO. The deoxygenation of GO after reduction was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as shown in Figure 1. The C 1s signals of the original GO can be deconvoluted into signals for the C=C bond in aromatic rings (284.6 eV), C O bond (286.1 eV), C=O bond (287.5 eV), and C(=O) OH bond (289.2 eV), in agreement with previous assignments. Increased sp carbon bonding with increased reduction time can be clearly measured, which
This paper references
Exciton versus band description of the absorption, luminescence and electro-absorption of poly(phenylphenylenevinylene) and poly(dodecylthiophene)
H. Baessler (1992)
Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide.
G. Eda (2010)
Adv. Mater
G Eda (2010)
Adv. Funct. Mater
C Mattevi (2009)
Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery
X. Sun (2008)
S Stankovich (1558)
Adv. Mater
D Y Pan (2010)
Synthesis and Solid-State NMR Structural Characterization of 13C-Labeled Graphite Oxide
W. Cai (2008)
Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide
S. Stankovich (2007)
Keywords: graphene · graphene oxide · luminescence · materials science · scanning-probe microscopy
Atomic and electronic structure of graphene-oxide.
K. Andre Mkhoyan (2009)
M Hirata (2004)
Scanning tunneling microscope contrast of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride on graphite and its application to the study of epitaxy
A. Hoshino (1994)
Appl. Phys. Lett
Z T Luo (2009)
Structural and electronic properties of oxidized graphene.
J. Yan (2009)
Recombination and photoluminescence mechanism in hydrogenated amorphous carbon.
Robertson (1996)
Nano Res
M Sun (2008)
J. Appl. Phys
A Hoshino (1994)
Evolution of Electrical, Chemical, and Structural Properties of Transparent and Conducting Chemically Derived Graphene Thin Films
C. Mattevi (2009)
Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide
Z. Luo (2009)
Highly efficient photoluminescent graphene oxide with tunable surface properties.
Qingsong Mei (2010)
Flash reduction and patterning of graphite oxide and its polymer composite.
L. Cote (2009)
Chem. Commun
S Mei (2010)
J. Am. Chem. Soc
L J Cote (2009)
Nat. Chem
K P Loh (1015)
Synth. Met
H Bässler (1992)
Phys. Rev. Lett
J Yan (2009)
Angewandte Communications 6666
Hydrothermal route for cutting graphene sheets into blue-luminescent graphene quantum dots.
Dengyu Pan (2010)
Solid State Commun
K S Subrahmanyam (1774)
Making graphene luminescent by oxygen plasma treatment.
T. Gokus (2009)
One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids.
J. Lu (2009)
Blue light emitting graphene-based materials and their use in generating white light
K. S. Subrahmanyam (2010)
Thin-film particles of graphite oxide 1:: High-yield synthesis and flexibility of the particles
M. Hirata (2004)
ACS Nano
J Lu (2009)
Phys. Rev. B
J Robertson (1996)
Structure-Assigned Optical Spectra of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
S. Bachilo (2002)
Graphene quantum dots derived from carbon fibers.
Juan Peng (2012)
Mn²+-bonded reduced graphene oxide with strong radiative recombination in broad visible range caused by resonant energy transfer.
Z. Gan (2011)
Atomic structure of reduced graphene oxide.
C. G'omez-Navarro (2010)
Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications.
K. P. Loh (2010)

This paper is referenced by
Influence of the synthesis conditions on the microstructural, compositional and morphological properties of graphene oxide sheets
E. Burresi (2020)
Photoluminescence of Graphene Oxide in Visible Range Arising from Excimer Formation
D. Du (2015)
Ultrasonic cavitation effects on the structure of graphene oxide in aqueous suspension
P. Perez-Martinez (2016)
Excitonic Photoluminescence from Nanodisc States in Graphene Oxides.
D. Kozawa (2014)
Methanol photo-oxidation at graphene and carbon nanotubes modified TiO2 nanosheets electrocatalysts
M. Mohamed (2017)
Solvent induced fluorescence enhancement of graphene oxide studied by ultrafast spectroscopy
Zhao Li-tao (2018)
Rapid exfoliation of layered covalent triazine-based frameworks into N-doped quantum dots for the selective detection of Hg2+ ions
Yuan-zhi Zhu (2017)
Mechanism of Photoluminescence from Chemically Derived Graphene Oxide: Role of Chemical Reduction
Zhixing Gan (2013)
The Origin of Fluorescence from Graphene Oxide
J. Shang (2012)
Recent progress on single-molecule nanocatalysis based on single-molecule fluorescence microscopy
Yuwei Zhang (2017)
Simultaneous drug delivery and cellular imaging using graphene oxide.
Sheng-Jen Cheng (2018)
Structural evaluation of reduced graphene oxide in graphene oxide during ion irradiation: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and in-situ sheet resistance studies
K. Saravanan (2018)
Fingerprint imaging using N-doped carbon dots
I. Milenkovic (2019)
A dual-fluorescent composite of graphene oxide and poly(3-hexylthiophene) enables the ratiometric detection of amines
D. Meng (2014)
Optical Detection of Enzymatic Activity and Inhibitors on Non-Covalently Functionalized Fluorescent Graphene Oxide.
T. W. Kang (2016)
Leaky graphene oxide with high quantum yield and dual-wavelength photoluminescence
S. Zhang (2016)
A facile synthesis of graphene oxide–ZnS/ZnO nanocomposites and observations of thermal quenching of visible photoluminescence emission and nonlinear optical properties
A. K. Kole (2016)
Spectroscopy and Microscopy of Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide
M. P. McDonald (2015)
Graphene quantum dots: versatile photoluminescence for energy, biomedical, and environmental applications
Z. Wang (2015)
Labeling of Graphene, Graphene Oxides, and of Their Congeners: Imaging and Biosensing Applications of Relevance to Cancer Theranostics
J. A. Tyson (2016)
Long-wavelength, multicolor, and white-light emitting carbon-based dots: Achievements made, challenges remaining, and applications
M. Shamsipur (2017)
Synthesis of emeraldine PANI polymer-reduced graphene and its use as polyelectrolyte
Joselyn Elizabeth Abraham (2019)
Self-assembly of fluorescent carbon dots in a N,N-dimethylmethanamide solution via Schiff base reaction.
Shengliang Hu (2015)
Synthesis and photoluminescence of three-dimensional europium-complexed graphene macroassembly
D. Wang (2013)
Photoluminescence quenching of graphene oxide by metal ions in aqueous media
D. Wang (2015)
Large bandgap reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based n-p + heterojunction photodetector with improved NIR performance
M. Singh (2018)
Intrinsic magnetism of monolayer graphene oxide quantum dots
Y. Sun (2016)
Rapid thermal annealing of nickel-carbon nanowires for graphene nanoribbons formation
D. Tošić (2016)
Photoluminescence of Graphene Oxide Infiltrated into Mesoporous Silicon
I. Rea (2014)
Luminescence tunability of europium functionalized graphene oxide sheets
P. K. Narayanam (2018)
Optical Properties of Graphene Oxide
A. Naumov (2016)
Facile One-Pot Synthesis of Highly Stable Graphene–Ag0 Hybrid Nanostructures with Enhanced Optical Properties
R. Maiti (2017)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar