Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

High‐Resolution Three‐Dimensional Computer Simulation Of Hominid Cranial Mechanics

S. Wroe, K. Moreno, P. Clausen, C. Mchenry, D. Curnoe
Published 2007 · Geology, Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
In vivo data demonstrates that strain is not distributed uniformly on the surface of the primate skull during feeding. However, in vivo studies are unable to identify or track changes in stress and strain throughout the whole structure. Finite element (FE) analysis, a powerful engineering tool long used to predict the performance of man‐made devices, has the capacity to track stress/strain in three dimensions (3‐D) and, despite the time‐consuming nature of model generation, FE has become an increasingly popular analytical device among biomechanists. Here, we apply the finite element method using sophisticated computer models to examine whether 3‐D stress and strain distributions are nonuniform throughout the primate skull, as has been strongly suggested by 2‐D in vivo strain analyses. Our simulations document steep internal stress/strain gradients, using models comprising up to three million tetrahedral finite elements and 3‐D reconstructions of jaw adducting musculature with both cranium and mandible in correct anatomical position. Results are in broad concurrence with the suggestion that few regions of the hominid cranium are clearly optimized for routine feeding and also show that external stress/strain does not necessarily reflect internal distributions. Findings further suggest that the complex heterogeneity of bone in the skull may act to dissipate stress, but that consequently higher strain must be offset by additional strain energy. We hypothesize that, despite energetic costs, this system may lend adaptive advantage through enhancing the organism's ability to modify its behavior before reaching catastrophic failure in bony or dental structures. Anat Rec, 290:1248–1255, 2007. © 2007 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
This paper references
10.1088/0967-3334/26/2/024
Generating accurate finite element meshes for the forward model of the human head in EIT.
A. Tizzard (2005)
Mammalian masticatory apparatus. Fieldiana
W D Turnbull (1970)
10.1038/35059070
Cranial design and function in a large theropod dinosaur
E. Rayfield (2001)
10.1002/AR.A.20360
Biomechanics of the rostrum in crocodilians: a comparative analysis using finite-element modeling.
C. Mchenry (2006)
10.1002/AR.A.20168
Using finite-element analysis to investigate suture morphology: a case study using large carnivorous dinosaurs.
E. Rayfield (2005)
10.1093/ICB/24.1.85
Elastic Energy Stores in Running Vertebrates
R. M. Alexander (1984)
The calibration of CT Houndsfield units for radiotherapy treatment planning
U Schnider (1996)
10.1146/ANNUREV.EARTH.35.031306.140104
Finite Element Analysis and Understanding the Biomechanics and Evolution of Living and Fossil Organisms
E. Rayfield (2007)
10.1152/PHYSREV.1970.50.2.171
Sensory mechanisms in mammalian teeth and their supporting structures.
D. J. Anderson (1970)
10.1098/rspb.2007.0906
Computer simulation of feeding behaviour in the thylacine and dingo as a novel test for convergence and niche overlap
S. Wroe (2007)
10.1002/AR.A.20165
Finite-element analysis of biting behavior and bone stress in the facial skeletons of bats.
E. Dumont (2005)
10.1098/rsbl.2004.0243
Scaling of elastic energy storage in mammalian limb tendons: do small mammals really lose out?
S. Bullimore (2005)
To what extent can the mechanical environment of a bone be inferred from its internal architecture
JJ Thomason (1995)
10.1002/AR.A.20176
Functional shape of the skull in vertebrates: which forces determine skull morphology in lower primates and ancestral synapsids?
H. Preuschoft (2005)
10.1086/284790
INCIDENCE OF TOOTH BREAKAGE AMONG LARGE, PREDATORY MAMMALS
B. Valkenburgh (1988)
10.1016/J.JBIOMECH.2003.08.008
Tensile yield in compact bone is determined by strain, post-yield behaviour by mineral content.
J. Currey (2004)
10.1002/AJPA.20025
Bite force production capability and efficiency in Neandertals and modern humans.
Carol F O'Connor (2005)
10.1002/AR.A.20172
Modeling elastic properties in finite-element analysis: how much precision is needed to produce an accurate model?
D. Strait (2005)
10.1113/jphysiol.1988.sp017382
The role of periodontal receptors in the jaw‐opening reflex in the cat.
D. Dessem (1988)
10.2307/1378712
Turnbull, William D. Mammalian Masticatory apparatus. Fieldiana: Geol., 18:149–356, 1970
S. O. Landry (1971)
10.1016/1350-4533(95)97314-F
Relations of mechanical properties to density and CT numbers in human bone.
J. Rho (1995)
10.1002/AJPA.1330860102
Masticatory-stress hypotheses and the supraorbital region of primates.
W. Hylander (1991)
10.1890/0012-9658(2007)88[347:BFAEAT]2.0.CO;2
Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores.
P. Christiansen (2007)
Mammalian masticatory apparatus
WD Turnbull (1970)
10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199702)102:2<203::AID-AJPA5>3.0.CO;2-Z
In vivo bone strain patterns in the zygomatic arch of macaques and the significance of these patterns for functional interpretations of craniofacial form.
W. Hylander (1997)
10.1006/ANBE.1994.1285
Cooperative hunting in wild chimpanzees
C. Boesch (1994)
10.1006/JHEV.1999.0380
Masticatory stress, orbital orientation and the evolution of the primate postorbital bar.
M. J. Ravosa (2000)
10.1098/rspb.2004.2755
Cranial mechanics and feeding in Tyrannosaurus rex
E. Rayfield (2004)
10.1007/BF03043785
Biomechanical investigations on the skulls of reptiles and mammals
H. Preuschoft (2002)
10.1098/rspb.2004.2986
Bite club: comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa
S. Wroe (2005)
10.1088/0031-9155/41/1/009
The calibration of CT Hounsfield units for radiotherapy treatment planning.
U. Schneider (1996)
10.1016/S0940-9602(04)80070-0
Bone strain gradients and optimization in vertebrate skulls.
C. Ross (2004)
Carnivory in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, in Sierra leone
R. Alp (1993)
in carnivores
F Cuozzo (2006)
10.1130/0091-7613(1990)018<0149:ECSEDO>2.3.CO;2
Early Cretaceous shelf-edge deltas of the Baltimore Canyon Trough: Principal sources for sediment gravity deposits of the northern Hatteras Basin
C. Poag (1990)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1411507
Miocene fossil hominids and the chimp-human clade.
D. Begun (1992)
10.1111/j.1469-7580.2006.00662.x
Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models
K. Kupczik (2007)
10.1007/978-0-387-34586-4_4
Impact of Ecology on the Teeth of Extant Lemurs: A Review of Dental Adaptations, Function, and Life History
F. Cuozzo (2006)
10.1139/Z91-327
Cranial strength in relation to estimated biting forces in some mammals
J. J. Thomason (1991)



This paper is referenced by
10.7717/peerj.204
Beware the black box: investigating the sensitivity of FEA simulations to modelling factors in comparative biomechanics
C. W. Walmsley (2013)
10.1073/pnas.0813156106
Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull
M. Moazen (2009)
10.1111/j.1365-2842.2010.02149.x
Current computational modelling trends in craniomandibular biomechanics and their clinical implications.
A. Hannam (2011)
10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00899.x
Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high‐resolution 3‐D finite element analysis
K. Moreno (2008)
10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00980.x
Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull
M. Moazen (2008)
10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.05.020
Allometry in the distribution of material properties and geometry of the felid skull: why larger species may need to change and how they may achieve it.
U. Chamoli (2011)
10.1002/evan.21416
Corrigendum
(2014)
10.1016/j.jtbi.2008.08.017
Requirements for comparing the performance of finite element models of biological structures.
E. Dumont (2009)
10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01296.x
Strain in the ostrich mandible during simulated pecking and validation of specimen‐specific finite element models
E. Rayfield (2011)
10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.12.027
Modelling subcortical bone in finite element analyses: A validation and sensitivity study in the macaque mandible.
O. Panagiotopoulou (2010)
10.1016/j.jtbi.2012.01.030
Toward integration of geometric morphometrics and computational biomechanics: new methods for 3D virtual reconstruction and quantitative analysis of Finite Element Models.
W. Parr (2012)
10.1016/J.JAS.2008.11.021
Possible causes and significance of cranial robusticity among Pleistocene–Early Holocene Australians
D. Curnoe (2009)
10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.06.036
Intravoxel bone micromechanics for microCT-based finite element simulations.
R. Blanchard (2013)
10.1111/J.1469-7998.2007.00389.X
Cranial mechanics compared in extinct marsupial and extant African lions using a finite‐element approach
S. Wroe (2008)
10.1371/journal.pone.0029121
The Effect of Unerupted Permanent Tooth Crowns on the Distribution of Masticatory Stress in Children
A. Hammond (2011)
10.1002/ar.23074
Biomechanical Implications of Intraspecific Shape Variation in Chimpanzee Crania: Moving Toward an Integration of Geometric Morphometrics and Finite Element Analysis
A. Smith (2015)
10.1002/ajpa.21151
The influence of masticatory loading on craniofacial morphology: A test case across technological transitions in the Ohio valley.
C. Paschetta (2010)
10.1155/2014/174028
Photoelastic and Finite Element Analyses of Occlusal Loads in Mandibular Body
A. Rossi (2014)
10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01247.x
Finite element analysis of performance in the skulls of marmosets and tamarins
E. Dumont (2011)
Investigating the biomechanics of a lizard skull using advanced computer modelling techniques with experimental validation
M. Moazen (2008)
10.1111/J.1469-7998.2011.00862.X
Finite element analysis of ursid cranial mechanics and the prediction of feeding behaviour in the extinct giant Agriotherium africanum
C. Oldfield (2012)
Finite element analysis of the cranium: Validity, sensitivity and future directions Analyse par éléments finis du crâne: validité, sensibilité et directions futures
Ricardo Miguel Godinho (2018)
10.3389/fbioe.2019.00269
The Mechanical Effect of the Periodontal Ligament on Bone Strain Regimes in a Validated Finite Element Model of a Macaque Mandible
Hyab Mehari Abraha (2019)
Neo y Paleoornitología virtual
C. Tambussi (2014)
10.1111/J.1469-7998.2009.00567.X
Implications of predatory specialization for cranial form and function in canids
G. Slater (2009)
10.1016/J.CRPV.2016.11.002
Finite element analysis of the cranium: Validity, sensitivity and future directions
R. M. Godinho (2017)
10.1111/j.1469-7580.2012.01516.x
Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study
L. Fitton (2012)
10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.01.008
The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics.
F. Gröning (2011)
10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01845.x
Allometry and performance: the evolution of skull form and function in felids
G. Slater (2009)
10.1002/ar.21203
The Global Impact of Sutures Assessed in a Finite Element Model of a Macaque Cranium
Q. Wang (2010)
10.1007/s10237-011-0291-5
The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures
Jia Liu (2012)
10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01257.x
The mechanical function of the periodontal ligament in the macaque mandible: a validation and sensitivity study using finite element analysis
O. Panagiotopoulou (2011)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar