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Complicated Community Acquired Pneumonia In Childhood: Different Types, Clinical Course, And Outcome

Ira Erlichman, O. Breuer, D. Shoseyov, M. Cohen-Cymberknoh, B. Koplewitz, D. Averbuch, Matti Erlichman, E. Picard, E. Kerem
Published 2017 · Medicine

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The incidence of pediatric community acquired complicated pneumonia (PCACP) is increasing. Questions addressed: Are different types of PCACP one disease? How do different treatment protocols affect the outcome? METHODS Retrospective analysis of medical records of PCACP hospitalizations in the three major hospitals in Jerusalem in the years 2001-2010 for demographics, clinical presentation, management, and outcome. RESULTS Of the 144 children (51% aged 1-4 years), 91% of Jewish origin; 40% had para-pneumonic effusion (PPE), 40% empyema (EMP), and 20% necrotizing pneumonia (NP). Bacterial origin was identified in 42% (empyema 79%, P = 0.009), most common S. pneumoniae (32%), group A streptococcus (9%). Patients with EMP, compared to PPE and NP, were less likely to receive prior antibiotic treatment (35% vs. 57% and 59%, respectively, P = 0.04). Mean hospitalization was longer in patients with NP followed by EMP and PPE (16.4 ± 10.6, 15.2 ± 7.9, and 12.7 ± 4.7 days, respectively), use of fibrinolysis was not associated with the outcome. All children had recovered to discharge regardless of antibiotic therapy or fibrinolysis. ANSWER NP is a more severe disease with prolonged morbidity and hospitalization in spite of prior antibiotic treatment. All types had favorable outcome regardless of treatment-protocol. Complicated pneumonia has an ethnic predominance. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:247-254. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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