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Highly Efficient Inhibition Of Human Chymase By Alpha(2)-macroglobulin.

M. Walter, R. M. Sutton, N. Schechter
Published 1999 · Chemistry, Medicine

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The inhibition of human chymase by the protease inhibitor alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha2M) was investigated. Titration of chymase hydrolytic activity with purified alpha2M showed that approximately 1 mol of alpha2M tetramer inhibits 1 mol of chymase. Inhibition was associated with cleavage of the alpha2M bait region and formation of a 200-kDa covalent complex. NH(2)-terminal sequencing of chymase-treated alpha2M revealed cleavage at bonds Phe684-Tyr685 and Tyr685-Glu686 of the bait region. alpha2M pretreated with methylamine, an inactivator of alpha2M, did not inhibit chymase. The apparent second-order rate constant for inhibition (k(ass)) was 5 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), making alpha2M the most efficient natural protein protease inhibitor of chymase so far described. The k(ass) value for inhibition was decreased approximately 10-fold by addition of heparin, a glycosaminoglycan produced by mast cells that binds to chymase. Heparin did not change significantly the stoichiometry of inhibition or block covalent complex formation. These results indicate that alpha2M is an important inhibitor to consider in the regulation of human chymase.
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