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Adipocyte Development And Experimental Obesity

E. Isganaitis, M. Patti
Published 2011 · Biology

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Abstract Adipose tissue is not only an energy storage depot but also a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes important mediators of systemic metabolism and inflammation. This chapter provides an overview of the developmental, molecular, and physiological mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue growth and function. We then present evidence for disruptions in adipocyte development, lipolysis, lipogenesis, and hormonal signaling in the context of developmentally programmed obesity. Low birth weight (LBW) individuals have abnormal adipose tissue distribution, defects in the regulation of lipolysis, and alterations in several hormonal axes involved in adipocyte physiology. Adipose tissue development is particularly perturbed in LBW infants with accelerated postnatal growth, or “catch-up growth.” Data from a variety of experimental models of programmed obesity have identified mechanisms contributing to several of these alterations. However, the pathophysiology of LBW-associated obesity remains incompletely elucidated, particularly with regard to the role of mesenchymal stem cell commitment to adipocyte fate and epigenetic regulation of adipose tissue development and function.
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