Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

A Perspective Of The History Of HAART

D. Konopnicki, N. Clumeck
Published 2004 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The history of HIV treatment is characterised by a rapid development. In 1987, 6 years after the discovery of AIDS, the US Food and Drug administration approved the first drug against HIV. Since then three different classes of antiretroviral drugs including 16 drugs are currently available, others have reached phase III studies and immunotherapy and vaccines are in development.
This paper references
10.1056/NEJM198707233170401
The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
M. Fischl (1987)
10.1056/NEJM199803263381301
Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators.
F. Palella (1998)
10.1086/340312
A randomized trial of simplified maintenance therapy with abacavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus infection.
M. Opravil (2002)
10.1086/315430
A randomized, controlled, phase II trial comparing escalating doses of subcutaneous interleukin-2 plus antiretrovirals versus antiretrovirals alone in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >/=350/mm3.
M. Losso (2000)
10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04056-3
Risk of lipodystrophy in HIV-1-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors: a prospective cohort study
E. Martínez (2001)
10.1097/00042560-200203010-00002
Randomized, Open‐Label Study of the Impact of Two Doses of Subcutaneous Recombinant Interleukin‐2 on Viral Burden in Patients With HIV‐1 Infection and CD4+ Cell Counts of ≥300/mm3: CPCRA 059
D. Abrams (2002)
10.1086/514250
Variability and Prognostic Values of Virologic and CD4 Cell Measures in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients with 200–500 CD4 Cells/mm3 (ACTG 175)
J. Lathey (1998)
10.1086/314891
The ALBI trial: a randomized controlled trial comparing stavudine plus didanosine with zidovudine plus lamivudine and a regimen alternating both combinations in previously untreated patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
J. Molina (1999)
10.1056/NEJMOA013552
Antiretroviral-drug resistance among patients recently infected with HIV.
S. Little (2002)
10.7326/0003-4819-137-5_Part_2-200209031-00001
Guidelines for Using Antiretroviral Agents among HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents: The Panel on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV*
M. Dybul (2002)
10.2165/00002018-200023060-00001
Toxicity of Antiretroviral Nucleoside and Nucleotide Analogues
G. Moyle (2000)
10.1056/NEJM199610313351803
Controlled trial of interleukin-2 infusions in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.
J. Kovacs (1996)
10.1001/JAMA.1996.03540020033026
Safety and efficacy of lamivudine-zidovudine combination therapy in zidovudine-experienced patients : A randomized controlled comparison with zidovudine monotherapy
S. Staszewski (1996)
10.1097/00002030-200006160-00014
A randomised, open-label comparison of three highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens including two nucleoside analogues and indinavir for previously untreated HIV-1 infection: the OzCombo1 study
A. Carr (2000)
10.1097/00126334-200107010-00003
Antiretroviral treatment simplification with nevirapine in protease inhibitor-experienced patients with hiv-associated lipodystrophy: 1-year prospective follow-up of a multicenter, randomized, controlled study.
L. Ruiz (2001)
10.1001/JAMA.279.12.930
A randomized, double-blind trial comparing combinations of Nevirapine, Didanosine, and Zidovudine for HIV-infected patients: the INCAS trial
J. Montaner (1998)
10.1056/NEJM199912163412501
Efavirenz plus zidovudine and lamivudine, efavirenz plus indinavir, and indinavir plus zidovudine and lamivudine in the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults. Study 006 Team.
S. Staszewski (1999)
10.7326/0003-4819-131-2-199907200-00002
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large Urban Clinic: Risk Factors for Virologic Failure and Adverse Drug Reactions
G. Lucas (1999)
Improving HIV-specific immune responses in HIV-infected patients.
G. Hardy (2002)
10.1097/00002030-200302140-00008
Effects of interleukin-2 therapy combined with highly active antiretroviral therapy on immune restoration in HIV-1 infection: a randomized controlled trial
Y. Lévy (2003)
10.1097/00002030-199902040-00009
Ritonavir and saquinavir combination therapy for the treatment of HIV infection.
D. Cameron (1999)
10.1038/nature01200
HIV-1 superinfection despite broad CD8+ T-cell responses containing replication of the primary virus
M. Altfeld (2002)
10.1016/S0140-6736(97)10291-4
Long-lasting recovery in CD4 T-cell function and viral-load reduction after highly active antiretroviral therapy in advanced HIV-1 disease
T. Li (1998)
10.1097/00002030-200210180-00007
INTERLEUKIN-2 ACCELERATES CD4 CELL RECONSTITUTION IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS WITH SEVERE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION DESPITE HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY: THE ILSTIM STUDY—ANRS 082
C. Katlama (2002)
10.1086/317426
Impact of switching from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors to efavirenz in successfully treated adults with lipodystrophy.
E. Martinez (2000)
10.1038/nm0796-760
Ordered accumulation of mutations in HIV protease confers resistance to ritonavir
A. Molla (1996)
10.7326/0003-4819-126-12-199706150-00003
Plasma Viral Load and CD4+ Lymphocytes as Prognostic Markers of HIV-1 Infection
J. Mellors (1997)
10.1097/00002030-200108170-00009
Simplification with abacavir-based triple nucleoside therapy versus continued protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA
N. Clumeck (2001)
10.1056/NEJM199709113371102
Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy.
R. Gulick (1997)
10.7326/0003-4819-112-10-727
The Safety and Efficacy of Zidovudine (AZT) in the Treatment of Subjects with Mildly Symptomatic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV) Infection: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
M. Fischl (1990)
10.1056/NEJM199512073332303
A short-term study of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of ritonavir, an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease. European-Australian Collaborative Ritonavir Study Group.
S. Danner (1995)
10.1056/NEJM199604183341602
Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection with saquinavir, zidovudine, and zalcitabine. AIDS Clinical Trials Group.
A. Collier (1996)
10.1097/01.AIDS.0000060397.18106.12
European guidelines for the clinical management and treatment of HIV-infected adults in Europe.
N. Clumeck (2003)
10.1056/NEJM199610103351501
A trial comparing nucleoside monotherapy with combination therapy in HIV-infected adults with CD4 cell counts from 200 to 500 per cubic millimeter. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 175 Study Team.
S. Hammer (1996)
10.1016/S0140-6736(98)03391-1
Pathogenesis of HIV-1-protease inhibitor-associated peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia, and insulin resistance
A. Carr (1998)
Reductions in viral load and increases in T lymphocyte numbers in treatment-naive patients with advanced HIV-1 infection treated with ritonavir, zidovudine and zalcitabine triple therapy.
D. Mathez (1997)
10.1016/S0140-6736(96)05387-1
Delta: a randomised double-blind controlled trial comparing combinations of zidovudine plus didanosine or zalcitabine with zidovudine alone in HIV-infected individuals
J. Darbyshire (1996)
10.1002/JPPR200434146
International AIDS Conference
D. Maxwell (1990)
10.1097/00126334-200301010-00004
Results of a Phase 2 Clinical Trial at 48 Weeks (AI424-007): A Dose-Ranging, Safety, and Efficacy Comparative Trial of Atazanavir at Three Doses in Combination with Didanosine and Stavudine in Antiretroviral-Naive Subjects
I. Sanne (2003)
10.1097/00002030-200007070-00002
Contribution of nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors to subcutaneous fat wasting in patients with HIV infection
S. Mallal (2000)
10.1097/00002030-199102000-00002
Zidovudine resistance predicted by direct detection of mutations in DNA from HIV-infected lymphocytes.
B. Larder (1991)
A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial
J. Smith (2004)
10.7326/0003-4819-119-8-199310150-00003
Combination Therapy with Zidovudine and Didanosine Compared with Zidovudine Alone in HIV-1 Infection
A. Collier (1993)
10.1056/NEJM199512073332204
A preliminary study of ritonavir, an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease, to treat HIV-1 infection.
M. Markowitz (1995)
10.1089/AID.1991.7.265
In vivo prevalence of azidothymidine (AZT) resistance mutations in an AIDS patient before and after AZT therapy.
J. Fitzgibbon (1991)
10.1001/JAMA.1996.03540020040027
Safety and efficacy of lamivudine-zidovudine combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients : A randomized controlled comparison with zidovudine monotherapy
C. Katlama (1996)
10.1073/pnas.261568398
Short-cycle structured intermittent treatment of chronic HIV infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy: Effects on virologic, immunologic, and toxicity parameters
M. Dybul (2001)
10.1093/INFDIS/169.4.722
Combination therapy with zidovudine and didanosine selects for drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains with unique patterns of pol gene mutations.
R. Shafer (1994)
10.1097/00002030-200201250-00010
Clinical utility of HIV-1 genotyping and expert advice: the Havana trial
C. Tural (2002)
10.1001/JAMA.285.9.1155
Abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine vs indinavir-lamivudine-zidovudine in antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected adults: A randomized equivalence trial.
S. Staszewski (2001)
10.1016/S0140-6736(94)90006-X
Concorde: MRC/ANRS randomised double-blind controlled trial of immediate and deferred zidovudine in symptom-free HIV infection
M. Seligmann (1994)
10.1056/NEJM199004053221401
Zidovudine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. A controlled trial in persons with fewer than 500 CD4-positive cells per cubic millimeter. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
P. Volberding (1990)
10.1001/JAMA.284.2.183
Immunologic and virologic effects of subcutaneous interleukin 2 in combination with antiretroviral therapy: A randomized controlled trial.
R. Davey (2000)
10.1056/NEJM199010113231501
A randomized controlled trial of a reduced daily dose of zidovudine in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
M. Fischl (1990)
10.1097/00002030-200105040-00005
Increased risk of lipodystrophy when nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors are included with protease inhibitors in the treatment of HIV-1 infection
M. van der Valk (2001)
10.1002/art.1780291202
A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
R. Pinals (1986)
10.1097/00002030-199817000-00003
Randomized, controlled phase II trial of subcutaneous interleukin‐2 in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV patients
U. Hengge (1998)
10.1126/SCIENCE.280.5371.1866
Toward HIV eradication or remission: the tasks ahead.
D. Ho (1998)
10.1097/00002030-200106150-00001
HIV dynamics and T-cell immunity after three structured treatment interruptions in chronic HIV-1 infection
L. Ruiz (2001)
10.1056/NEJM199610103351502
The relation of virologic and immunologic markers to clinical outcomes after nucleoside therapy in HIV-infected adults with 200 to 500 CD4 cells per cubic millimeter. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 175 Virology Study Team.
D. Katzenstein (1996)
10.1097/00002030-200109280-00010
HIV protease inhibitor substitution in patients with lipodystrophy: a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicentre study
A. Carr (2001)
10.1097/00002030-199904160-00009
Lamivudine in combination with zidovudine, stavudine, or didanosine in patients with HIV-1 infection. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 306 Investigators.
D. Kuritzkes (1999)
10.1056/NEJM199512213332502
Treatment with lamivudine, zidovudine, or both in HIV-positive patients with 200 to 500 CD4+ cells per cubic millimeter. North American HIV Working Party.
J. Eron (1995)
10.1037/e548472006-001
Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Recommendations of the Panel on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV.
M. Dybul (2002)
10.7326/0003-4819-122-1-199501010-00004
Combination and Monotherapy with Zidovudine and Zalcitabine in Patients with Advanced HIV Disease
M. Fischl (1995)
10.1097/00062752-199704030-00008
Role of granulocyte colony‐stimulating factor and granulocyte‐macrophage colony‐stimulating factor in the treatment of patients with HIV infection
L. Frumkin (1997)
10.1001/JAMA.276.2.111
Safety and efficacy of lamivudine-zidovudine combination therapy in zidovudine-experienced patients. A randomized controlled comparison with zidovudine monotherapy. Lamivudine European HIV Working Group.
S. Staszewski (1996)
10.1056/NEJM199208273270901
A controlled trial comparing continued zidovudine with didanosine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. The NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group.
J. Kahn (1992)
10.1016/S0140-6736(99)01122-8
Clinical progression and virological failure on highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 patients: a prospective cohort study
B. Ledergerber (1999)
10.1046/j.1468-1293.2002.00123.x
First‐line ritonavir/indinavir 100/800 mg twice daily plus nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in a German multicentre study: 48‐week results
E. Voigt (2002)
10.1097/00002030-200005050-00006
Risks and benefits of replacing protease inhibitors by nevirapine in HIV-infected subjects under long-term successful triple combination therapy
P. Barreiro (2000)
10.1016/S0140-6736(95)90699-1
Safety and activity of saquinavir in HIV infection
V. Kitchen (1995)



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar