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New Processes For Biological Nitrogen Removal

João Paulo Bassin
Published 2018 · Chemistry
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The conventional biological nitrogen removal process combining the nitrification and denitrification steps is widely implemented worldwide for the treatment of wastewaters with low to moderate nitrogen concentrations. For highly nitrogen-concentrated streams, the conventional process become limited, mainly due to sizing and operation issues. In the 1990s, the paradigm that the only way to biologically convert ammonium into nitrogen gas was the complete oxidation of ammonium to nitrate (nitrification) followed by the reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas (denitrification) became obsolete. Novel bacteria involved in the nitrogen cycle were identified and isolated from natural and engineered systems, which culminated in the discovery of new metabolic pathways and development of more sustainable processes for nitrogen removal. The idea of this chapter is to illustrate the most relevant innovative nitrogen removal processes and how they evolved over the years from bench-scale research to full-scale implementation.
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