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Innovationstätigkeit Und Der Erfolg öffentlicher Organisationen: Erkenntnisse Einer Panelstudie

Torsten Oliver Salge, Antonio Vera
Published 2012 · Political Science

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ZusammenfassungDer Beitrag untersucht den Zusammenhang zwischen Innovationstätigkeit und Organisationserfolg im öffentlichen Sektor. Zu diesem Zweck wurde eine empirische Untersuchung im öffentlichen Krankenhauswesen durchgeführt, die sich auf einen neuen Paneldatensatz stützt. Dieser umfasst sämtliche öffentliche Krankenhausorganisationen Englands, für die Beobachtungen über einen Zeitraum von vier Jahren (2003/2004–2006/2007) vorliegen. Um ihrer Komplexität Rechnung zu tragen, wurden die Konstrukte Innovationstätigkeit und Organisationserfolg mehrdimensional erfasst. So unterscheidet das Messmodell nicht nur zwischen technischem und ökonomischem Erfolg, sondern auch zwischen forschungs- und praxisnaher Innovationstätigkeit. Dynamische Panel-Regressionsanalysen unterstützen den vermuteten positiven Zusammenhang zwischen forschungs- und praxisnaher Innovationstätigkeit und technischem Krankenhauserfolg, wenngleich dies für praxisnahe Innovationstätigkeit nur mit Einschränkungen gilt. Außerdem wird ersichtlich, dass der Grad der Patientenorientierung eines Krankenhauses eine moderierende Rolle dergestalt spielt, dass eine höhere forschungsnahe Innovationstätigkeit insbesondere dann mit Qualitätsverbesserungen einhergeht, wenn eine überdurchschnittliche Patientenorientierung vorliegt. Zudem finden sich Hinweise auf einen vermuteten umgekehrt U-förmigen Zusammenhang zwischen Innovationstätigkeit und ökonomischem Krankenhauserfolg für praxisnahe, nicht jedoch für forschungsnahe Innovationstätigkeit.AbstractThis paper examines the relationship between innovative activity and organisational performance in the public sector. For this purpose, we conducted an empirical study in the context of public hospital services, which draws on a novel panel dataset. The latter contains information on all public hospital organisations in England, each of which is observed over a 4-year period (2003/2004–2006/2007). We account for the complexity of our key constructs by conceptualising innovative activity and organisational performance as multidimensional concepts. Our measurement model therefore distinguishes not only between technical and economic hospital performance, but also between science- and practice-based innovative activity. Dynamic panel regression analyses support the expected positive relationship between science-based innovative activity and technical hospital performance—a finding that holds for practice-based innovative activity only under certain conditions. Moreover, the degree of patient orientation within a hospital was found to play an important moderating role. More specifically, increases in science-based innovative activity were only associated with tangible quality improvements in hospital organisations with a superior patient orientation. Moreover, we find some support for the expected inverse U-shaped link between innovative activity and economic performance with regards to practice-based innovative activity. However, we could not identify any such relationship with regards to science-based innovative activity.
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