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The Influence Of The Microstructure Of High Noble Gold-platinum Dental Alloys On Their Corrosion And Biocompatibility In Vitro

M. Colic, Dragomir Stamenković, I. Anžel, G. Lojen, R. Rudolf
Published 2009 · Materials Science

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The aim of this work was to compare the microstructures of two high noble experimental Au-Pt alloys with similar composition with their corrosion and biocompatibility in vitro. We showed that Au-Pt II alloy, composed of 87.3 wt.% Au, 9.9 wt.% Pt, 1.7 wt.% Zn and 0.5 wt.% Ir + Rh + In, although possessing better mechanical properties than the Au-Pt I alloy (86.9 wt.% Au, 10.4 wt.% Pt, 1.5 wt.% Zn and 0.5 wt.% Ir + Rh + In), exerted higher adverse effects on the viability of L929 cells and the suppression of rat thymocyte functions, such as proliferation activity, the production of Interleukin-2 (IL-2), expression of IL-2 receptor and activation — induced apoptosis after stimulation of the cells with Concanavalin-A. These results correlated with the higher release of Zn ions in the culture medium. As Zn2+, at the concentrations which were detected in the alloy’s culture media, showed a lesser cytotoxic effect than the Au-Pt conditioning media, we concluded that Zn is probably not the only element responsible for alloy cytotoxicity. Microstructural characterization of the alloys, performed by means of scanning electron microscopy in addition to energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction analyses, showed that Au-Pt I is a two-phase alloy containing a dominant Au-rich α1 phase and a minor Pt-rich α2 phase. On the other hand, the Au-Pt II alloy additionally contained three minor phases: AuZn3, Pt3Zn and Au1.4Zn0.52. The highest content of Zn was identified in the Pt3Zn phase. After conditioning, the Pt3Zn and AuZn3 phases disappeared, suggesting that they are predominantly responsible for Zn loss, lower corrosion stability and subsequent lower biocompatibility of the Au-Pt II alloy.
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